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"L I E> RA FLY 

OF THE 
UNIVERSITY 
Of ILLINOIS 

977 2 
InZ 



\UL HIST. SURVK 



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in 2012 with funding from 

University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign 



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THE JOURNEY OF 
LEWIS DAVID VON SCHWEINITZ 

to 

GOSHEN, BARTHOLOMEW COUNTY 

in 1831 



Translated By 
ADOLF GERBER 



Indiana Historical 

Society Publications 

Volume 8 

Number 5 



INDIANAPOLIS 
PRINTED FOR THE SOCIETY 

1927 



The Wm. Mitchell Printing Co., 
Greenfield, Indiana 



INTRODUCTION 

The report which Lewis David von Schweinitz 1 made to 
the Provincial Helpers' Conference of the Moravian Church 
at Bethlehem, 2 Pennsylvania, of his journey in 1831 to In- 
diana and return to Bethlehem by way of Gnadenhutten and 
Sharon, Ohio, presents many points of interest. It gives an 
interesting chapter in the development of the Moravian Church 
in the United States, and an accurate account of the methods 
and conditions of travel between northeastern Pennsylvania 
and central Indiana. It throws light upon pioneer conditions 
in southern Indiana, and contains a vivid picture of an early 
settlement. It also includes notes of value made by a scientific 
botanist upon the flora of Indiana. 

Lewis David von Schweinitz was born at Bethlehem, Penn- 
sylvania, in 1780. His father, John Christian Alexander von 
Schweinitz, 3 was of an ancient and distinguished family of 
Silesia and his mother was a granddaughter of Count Zinzen- 
dorf. Both were devoted workers in the Moravian Church 
and served in Pennsylvania from 1770 up to the close of the 



1 The German form of the name is Ludwig David von Schweinitz. 
In America the French form, "de Schweinitz," is as commonly used 
as the German, "von Schweinitz." In the letter to Martin Hauser in 
which a visit to Goshen is proposed, the signature is "De Schweinitz." 
His first name is sometimes spelled "Louis." 

2 Bethlehem, Pennsylvania, on the Lehigh River, a name which is a 
modified form of the Indian "Lechai" or "Lechi," was the chief Mo- 
ravian settlement in the United States, planted in 1741. A great many 
of the Moravian missionaries went out from this place. When two 
provinces of the Moravian Church were organized, Bethlehem re- 
mained the headquarters of the northern province; Salem, later Win- 
ston-Salem, North Carolina, being the headquarters of the southern 
province. 

8 Von Schweinitz, Rev. Paul D., "German Moravian Settlements in 
Pennsylvania. 1 735-1800," The Pennsylvania-German Society Proceed- 
ings, vol. IV, p. 72 (Published by the Society, 1894). 

(205) 



206 Von Schweinitz Journey 1831 

century without compensation other than a house to live in. 

Von Schweinitz received his early education at Nazareth 
Hall, 4 the Moravian meeting-house and school at Nazareth, 
Pennsylvania ; while preparing for the ministry, he was also 
a great student of science, particularly of cryptogamic botany. 
In 1798 he went to Germany with his father and the rest of 
his family for the purpose of fuller classical and theological 
training at Niesky in Upper Lusatia. 5 There he devoted his 
leisure hours to the study of fungi. In recognition of a paper 
which he prepared on the species of the order found around 
Niesky, published at Leipsic in conjunction with Professor 
Albertini, the degree of Ph. D. was conferred upon him by 
the University of Kiel. 

In 1812 he was called to Salem, North Carolina, to take 
charge of the property of the Moravian Church. 6 In Decem- 
ber, 1821 he was transferred to Bethlehem, Pennsylvania, as 
minister and principal of the school for girls. The following 
year he became administrator of church property. 

In 1822 his great work, A Synopsis of the Fungi of 
North America, was presented to the American Philosophical 



4 "At Nazareth, nine English Miles to the north of Bethlehem, 
there is built a roomy Meeting-hall called Nazareth-hall, in which the 
Brethren's Congregation which lives round about Nazareth in dif- 
ferent places, Gnadenthal and Christian's Spring, has their divine Serv- 
ice on Sundays & festival Days. At Nazareth-hall there is also the 
Paedagogium of the Unity of the Brethren in America. Last year 
[1771] the building of a new Congregation Place near the Meeting-hall 
was begun." Spangenberg, Bishop August Gottlieb, "A Short His- 
torical Account about the Present Constitution of the Protestant Unity 
of the Bethren of the Augustan Confession" (1772), translated by 
Bagge, Traugott (1778), in Fries, Adelaide L. (ed.), Records of the 
Moravians in North Carolina, vol. Ill, p. 1986 (Raleigh, 1926). 

5 " Niesky, also in Upper Lusatia, [Electorate of Saxony] Germany 
on the Manor of Trcbus, 12 miles from Görlitz. It was begun to be 
built in 1742, by exiles from Bohemia. Here is at present the Paedogo- 
gium of the Protestant Unity of the Brethren." Ibid., p. 981. 

6 Von Schweinitz' account of his journey to Salem from June 4 
to September 16, in the opening days of the War of 1812, is being 
printed at Herrnhut, Saxony, Germany, with omissions and some 
changes of style. It will be published under the title, "Über Welt- 
meer." Salem, now part of the important city of Winston-Salem, For- 
syth County, North Carolina, was and still is an important Moravian 
center. According to Bishop Spangenberg (op. cit., p. 988), it was 
founded in 1766. 



Von Schweinitz Journey 1831 207 

Society of Philadelphia. In this he enumerated 3,098 differ- 
ent species, including 1,203 new to science. 7 During the same 
period he also prepared his Monograph of the Carices of North 
America, which was accepted and published by the New York 
Lyceum of Natural History. 8 As a scientist, von Schweinitz 
was further honored by having his name embodied in a genus 
of flowering plants of the heath family, Schweinitzia, rep- 
resented by a brace of rare species, one of them at home in the 
mountains of the Carolinas and the other in Florida. 

Twice, in 1818 and in 1825, von Schweinitz was sent as 
delegate to the Synod at Herrnhut, 9 Saxony, Germany, and on 
the latter occasion he was ordained "Senior Civilis." 10 Like 
his parents, he was always a devoted worker in the Moravian 
Church and was most conscientious in the discharge of his 
ministerial and financial duties. 

In 1830 his health began to fail. His journey through 
Indiana made only a temporary improvement. He died Feb- 
ruary 8, 1834. 11 



7 The Library of Congress catalog gives the following title : Syn- 
opsis fungorum Carolinae superioris secundum observationes Ludovici 
Davidis de Scweinitz — Ed. a D. F. Schwaegrichen, 1822 (E Commen- 
tariis, Societatis naturae curiosorum lipsiensis excerpta). 

8 This was placed in the hands of Dr. John Torrey for publica- 
tion, since von Schweinitz was called to Germany. He therefore in- 
sisted that the paper appear as a joint production, in recognition of 
the editing and a few additions made by Dr. Torrey. The Library of 
Congress Catalog gives : The Correspondence of Schweinitz and Tor- 
rey, ed. by C. L. Shear and Neil E. Stevens (New York, The Club, 
1921). 

9 "Herrnhuth, in Upper Lusatia, on the high road that leads from 
Lobau to Zittau, on the Manor of Berthelsdorf, formerly the estate of 
Count Zinzendorf, now of Baron de Watteville. This place was be- 
gun to build in 1722, and the Congregation has in process of time been 
confirmed in its Regulations by Privileges from the Elector." Spang- 
enberg, op. cit., p. 981. 

10 The duties of the Seniores civiles were to inspect the decorum 
of the respective congregations and their observation of the national 
laws, and when necessary, to prevent any infringement of the rights 
and privileges granted them by the government. These officers, ap- 
pointed and blessed by central church authorities, ranked between bish- 
ops and the presbyters. 

1:L This sketch is based upon the notes of Dr. Adolf Gerber, the 
translator of the following report, upon Porter, Rev. Thomas C, "The 
Pennsylvania-German in the Field of the Natural Sciences." The 
Pennsylvania-German Society Proceedings, vol. VI, pp. 30-33 (Pub- 



208 Von Schweinitz Journey 1831 

The congregation of United Brethren or Moravians at 
Hope (Goshen) which was the objective of Lewis David von 
Schweinitz, was formed by Martin Häuser and other settlers 
from Salem, North Carolina, about fourteen miles east of Co- 
lumbus, Indiana. Von Schweinitz, as a member of the Pro- 
vincial Church Board at Bethlehem, Pennsylvania, in 1830, 
advanced $200 for the establishment of a church by these 
settlers. A rude log church was built and the first services in 
it were held on June 17, but the formal organization of the 
church awaited von Schweinitz' visit the following year. Mar- 
tin Hauser was ordained to the ministry at Bethlehem in 
1833, and became the first settled pastor. The church has main- 
tained its identity and its activities down to the present time. 12 

When the settlers sought to obtain a post-office, the name, 
Goshen, which had been applied to the settlement itself was 
found to be duplicated in Goshen, Elkhart County, Indiana. 
Accordingly the post-office was given the new name, Hope, 
which it has retained to the present. The post-office of Hope 
was established February 8, 1834, with Martin Häuser as its 
first postmaster. 13 

For information about the relation of the North Carolina 
churches to those in Indiana, and the movement from the 
former to the latter, we are indebted to Miss Adelaide L. 
Fries, of Winston-Salem, North Carolina, archivist of the 
Moravian Church in America, Southern Province. Miss Fries 
is a granddaughter of Lewis David von Schweinitz. She 
writes that a large loss of membership in North Carolina be- 
gan about 1818, and assumes that much of it was due to the 



lished by the Society, 1896), and upon Hamilton, J. Taylor, History of 
the Moravian Church, pp. 357-61 {Transactions of the Moravian His- 
torical Society, vol. VI, Bethlehem, Pa., 1900). The latter contains a 
full-page portrait of von Schweinitz, p. 361. 

12 "The Moravian Church of Hope," in History of Bartholomew 
County, Indiana, pp. 527-34 (Chicago, 1888) ; manuscript diaries of 
Martin Häuser and Sand ford A. Rominger ; manuscript church rec- 
ords at Hope. Photostats of the diary and reminiscences of Martin 
Häuser and of many of the church records are in the Indiana State 
Library. Early traditions of the church are unusually well preserved. 
Its Easter services draw many hundreds of visitors. 

13 Record of Indiana post-offices, Indiana State Library. 



Von Schweinitz Journey 1831 209 

western movement. However, there is little definite infor- 
mation in the records at Salem prior to 1829, when the Pro- 
vincial Elders' Conference gave official sanction to the Hope 
movement. 

Miss Fries's translation of extracts from the minutes of 
the Provincial Elders' Conference, Salem, North Carolina, 
gives the background of the Indiana settlement: 

Sept. 8, 182g. Some of our former neighbors have moved from 
this part of the country to the State of Indiana, whither our Br. and 
Sr. Martin Häuser, — who have been living outside Salem, N. C — plan 
to go shortly. On his visit there last year Br. Häuser found his brother 
and certain others who belong to the Unity, who live near together, 
who desire a spiritual association, and greatly desire that they may 
be provided with a Brother belonging to the Unity who can serve them 
as pastor or preacher as soon as a sufficient number of them have 
associated themselves together. There is a prospect that the estab- 
lishing of a Country Congregation there would be of service to that 
neighborhood and others for the kingdom of Christ. Br. Martin 
Hauser has taken up the matter with Br. von Schweinitz [of Bethle- 
hem, Pa.] offering to take up a Quarter Section, — 160 acres, — in the 
name of von Schweinitz; thinking that the land can be used for the 
support of a minister there, where money is likely to be scarce. Br. 
von Schweinitz approved the plan, especially as the land is fertile and 
cheap, that is $1.25 per acre. Br. von Schweinitz has given Br. Mar- 
tin Häuser a written statement of his thoughts and views, and has 
recommended the plan to this Provincial] E[lders'] Conference], sug- 
gesting that the money be raised through private subscription or through 
an advance from the Administration here, in order that those who are 
seeking the preaching of the Gospel may be helped if possible. 

As the carrying out of this recommended plan could be more easily 
accomplished by the Bethlehem P. E. C. than from here, it seems to 
us that for the present it will be best to advise that they do it. But 
as a preparation it is very necessary that some one shall receive a pre- 
liminary commission to serve as leader for the souls who are hungry for 
salvation, to visit them, hold meetings for reading, exhortation and 
prayer, as Br. Martin Häuser has set forth to this P. E. C. ; and it 
seems to us that this Brother is himself fitted to act in this capacity, 
for we understand his position in the matter, and he has been suc- 
cessful in work of the same sort among awakened souls in this neigh- 
borhood. We therefore believe ourselves to be able to give him a 
written Call, and in order to avoid trouble we will also give him a 
letter of instructions, under which he can act. Br. Bechler will draw 
up the letter. 

Dec. 14, 1830. The families who have moved from this neighbor- 
hood to Indiana are very anxious to have a Country Congregation es- 
tablished, and to have it served by an ordained minister of the Unity 
of Brethren [Unitas Fratrum or Moravian Church], Br. Martin Häuser 
has made this wish known to the Pennsylvania P. E. C, and has asked 
whether the matter ought to be presented to that P. E. C. or to this 
one. In his last letter Br. Anders has asked Br. Bechler for a speedy 
expression of the thoughts of this Conference in this matter, and es- 
pecially whether the families who have moved thither should be 



210 Von Schweinitz Journey 1831 

counted as belonging to the northern P. E. C. or to ours, for advice 
and direction. After again considering the matter we think on the 
one hand, as we did before, that while there is not much difference 
in the distance from here or from Bethlehem to Indiana, yet the 
postal facilities are better and the transportation cheaper from Penn- 
sylvania, and so it would be better to have the work supervised from 
there. On the other hand it must be remembered that those who 
have moved thither are all North Carolinians, for whom it would be dear 
and interesting to maintain the connection with us and with their 
friends here, and they would always prefer to have teachers from here 
who were accustomed to the same customs, manner of living, and 
church observances, as they have already said, and they have suggest- 
ed several Brethren. Moreover the success of the undertaking there 
demands that the Minister, along with other necessary qualifications, 
must be a good business man, and it seems hardly likely that such 
a man can be found in Pennsylvania. All of this argues on the other 
side. In order not to decide in too much haste, but to look ahead 
and consider the matter well, Br. Bechler will send these our thoughts 
to Br. Anders for the P. E. C. there, in order that each may learn the 
opinion of the other before the matter is closed. 

Sept. 23, i8?9. As collections of various kinds are often taken up 
in our town we cannot interfere with the efforts of Br. Jacob Schulz — 
who has recently returned from a visit to Indiana, — to secure private 
contributions toward the erection of a plain meeting house in Henrix 
[Hendricks] County, Indiana. Some of our neighbors have moved 
thither, and are too far from Hope, although Br. Martin Häuser has 
visited them several times a year. Br. Philips has given two acres 
of land as a site for the house, and for a Graveyard, for those who 
live there. 

May 4, 1840. Some time ago Br. Martin Häuser asked the local 
P. E. C. for permission to send his two youngest daughters to school 
here, where he has many friends. The request came through the P. 
E. C. in Bethlehem, in which Province he is working as a minister. 
The answer has been sent that in view of his former service here the 
daughters will each be allowed $50.00 a year, and Br. Häuser himself 
must pay the balance. Br. Van Vleck will write to Br. Häuser that 
we will take his daughters on these conditions, if place can be found 
for them in the town, for the boarding school is full. 

Sept. 25, 1840. A letter from Br. Martin Häuser at Hope, Indiana, 
states that he plans to visit here in October, with his six children, 
bringing his two youngest daughters to the school here. 

May 8, 184 1. The question arises regarding Brethren from Wach- 
ovia who have moved to Illinois : — would it not be worth the trouble to 
do as was done in Hope, Indiana, and have the Unity buy some Sec- 
tions of land, and its value would soon double, and it would provide 
place for the building of a school house, and other buildings? Our 
idea is that there would be no objection to the buying of some Sec- 
tions of land if that were all there would be to it. So long as those 
settlers were satisfied with their own services it would be all right ; 
but soon they would ask for Brethren who could administer the Sac- 
raments, and then they would want a stationed minister, which would 
bring with it heavy expense and many difficulties, as has been the 
case at Hope. 

As Br. Van Vleck is writing to Br. Benade he shall do well, per- 
haps, to mention our thoughts about the Illinois matter, and he might 
ask whether the P. E. C. there would be willing to instruct Br. Martin 



Von Schweinitz Journey 1831 211 

Hauser to extend his Diaspora journeys to Edwards County, 111., that 
he might visit the settlers from Wachovia, and that they would take 
further consideration of this matter into their hands. 

June 2$, 1841. Two letters have been received from Br. Benade. 
The P. E. C. in Bethlehem have considered the matter of the settlers in 
Edwards County, 111., will send either Br. Ebermann or Häuser there 
on a visit, and will buy several lots of land. 14 

The manuscript journal of Lewis David von Schweinitz' 
trip to Indiana of which a translation is here presented is in 
the Archiv der Brüder-Unitat in Herrnhut, Saxony. 15 It was 
brought to the attention of the Indiana Historical Society 
by Dr. Adolf Gerber, formerly of Earlham College, who has 
supplied a copy of the original German text as well as the 
English translation. 16 Dr. Gerber states that von Schweinitz 
completed his report in August, 1831, a month after his jour- 
ney, and that it or a copy of it was sent from Bethlehem, 
Pennsylvania, to Herrnhut. The manuscript in the archives of 
the United Brethren at Herrnhut has marginal corrections 
and bears the annotations, ''ausgefertigt L. v. Stz Sept. 32" 
(submitted by Lewis von Schweinitz, September, 1832), and 
"zum 2t. mal ausgearbeitet Dec. 1833, L. v. s." (work- 
ed over again December, 1833 L. v. S.). This latter annota- 
tion refers, according to Dr. Gerber, to an abridgment of the 
report, which was submitted to the Unity's Elders' Conference 
and printed in the Gemein Nachrichten 11 in January, 1833. 
In the present translation marginal corrections on the manu- 
script are incorporated in the text. 

The translation furnished by Dr. Gerber has been modified 
in the interest of fluency. No attempt has been made to fol- 
low the paragraphs, and lack of paragraphing, in the original 
manuscript. Notes have been supplied by Dr. Gerber, 



14 The Memorabilia of 1849, in the appended statistics, notes that 
"New Salem, 111. has 95 communicants." 

15 The manuscript is numbered R. 14. A. 36 No. 37. 

16 The copy of the original German text is in the possession of 
the Indiana State Library. 

17 The Gemein Nachrichten were communications from the Unity's 
Elders' Conference in Germany which kept the provinces informed of 
the activities of the General Synod and all other church concerns. A 
package of Nachrichten was received with great stir and excitement 
in the early settlements, where they were read before a large gathering 
of the brethren. 



212 Von Schweinitz Journey 1831 

George Pence, of Columbus, Irma Ulrich, of the State His- 
torical Bureau, and myself. Modern botanical terms have been 
supplied by Charles C. Deam, state forester of Indiana. For 
financial contributions toward this publication we are in- 
debted to Charles C. Deam, of Bluffton, and William G. Ir- 
win, of Columbus. The preparation of the manuscript for the 
press has been for the most part in charge of Irma Ulrich. 

Christopher B. Coleman, 
Secretary, Indiana Historical Society 



THE JOURNEY OF LEWIS DAVID VON SCHWEINITZ 

FROM BETHLEHEM, PENNSYLVANIA, TO 

GOSHEN, INDIANA, IN 1831 

Report 

Of a journey undertaken, for the restoration of his health, 
by Brother Lewis David von 'Schweinitz, accompanied by 
Brother Eugene Alexander Frueauf, 1 on behalf of the Provin- 
cial Helpers' Conference, 2 for the purpose of visiting the con- 
gregation who recently settled in Goshen, 3 Bartholomew Coun- 
ty, Indiana, from North Carolina, and also our two congre- 
gations at Gnadenhuetten 4 and Sharon, 5 Ohio. This journey 
extended from May 31 to July, 1831. 



^Frueauf was a nephew of von Schweinitz. In 1856 he was ap- 
pointed administrator of general church finances, and in 1864 he was 
elected by Synod as a member of the Board of Visitors, created at 
that time as an advisory council to the Provincial Elders' Council in 
all concerns of the college and theological seminary. He was later 
principal of Linden Hall Seminary, at Lititz, Pennsylvania. Hamilton, 
History of the Moravian Church, pp. 407, 447, 485. 

2 The congregation at Hope, Indiana, belonged to the northern 
province whose headquarters were at Bethlehem, Pennsylvania. The 
Provincial Helpers' Conferences were created at the 18th General Syn- 
od at Marienborn, in 1769, to govern the subordinate branches of the 
British and American provinces. They were appointed by and respon- 
sible to the Unity's Elders' Conference and not to the congregations 
whose general interests they superintended. After 1848 the Provin- 
cial Helpers' Conference was made responsible to the American Pro- 
vincial Synod, when that body was given authority to convene itself 
at stated intervals. American Church History Series, vol. VIII, pp. 
468, 489 (New York, 1894). 

3 Now the town of Hope. See Introduction. 

4 Now spelled Gnadenhutten, in Tuscarawas County. 

5 Sharon was founded in 1815 through the efforts of Jacob Blick- 
ensderfer. 

(213) 



214 Von Schweinitz Journey 1831 

[The Journey to Madison, Indiana] 

At the urgent request of our brethren and sisters from 
North Carolina who are settling in Bartholomew County, In- 
diana, to the Provincial Helpers' Conference that, during the 
course of the summer, they might be encouraged by the 
visit of an ordained brother, the most necessary institutions 
be established among them, and the holy sacraments ad- 
ministered, we promised them to see that this was done. 6 

As it was thought that an extended journey, which the 
dear brethren urged upon me, would aid in the restoration 
of my long-impaired health, and since I would have to take 
such a journey this spring or summer, anyway, it seemed 
proper to give it this direction, so that at the same time the 
above promise might be fulfilled and the Conference also 
might be given, from a personal inspection by one of its mem- 
bers, more exact knowledge of the whole situation and the 
important opportunity recommended to it in the state of In- 
diana. 

Trusting that the Lord would graciously assist me in 
the considerable hardships and privations to be anticipated 
upon such a journey, which could be taken only on the public 
stages, I gladly accepted the commission given me by my dear 
colleagues, especially since they allowed me my dear nephew, 
Brother Eugene Frueauf, for a companion. It would have 
been too much of a venture to undertake such a journey all 
alone. 

I recovered from the heavy discomfiture of winter in a 
gratifying manner at the end of February and the beginning 
of March. After a visit in Philadelphia in the month of April, 
I suffered an alarming relapse which, with the renewal of the 



6 Martin Häuser had arrived in Bartholomew County, whither some 
of his North Carolina neighbors had preceded him, about the end 
of 1829. Von Schweinitz had labored in North Carolina before tak- 
ing up his work at Herrnhut. See Introduction. A letter from von 
Schweinitz to Häuser, dated at Bethlehem, October 29, 1830, promising 
that an ordained brother would visit the Indiana settlement and stating 
that an appointment of Häuser as agent was enclosed, is preserved in 
the church records at Hope. A photostat of it is in the Indiana 
State Library. 



Von Schweinitz Journey 1831 215 

violent cough that seems to be at the bottom of my whole 
illness, produced a tightness in my chest, not felt to that de- 
gree before. I also felt a languor of my mental powers which 
was so depressing that I scarcely knew whether I dare go. 
Nevertheless I felt an overpowering impulse to enter upon the 
journey in the name of the Lord who gave me courage, al- 
though I did not feel relief until the eve of my departure 
from Bethlehem, on Ascension Day, May 12th. At the eve- 
ning meeting on this day, I bade farewell to the dear con- 
gregation at Bethlehem and commended myself and my com- 
mission to their loving remembrance and prayer. 

After a sorrowful but, at the same time, hopeful parting 
from our family, we began our journey to Philadelphia by 
stage coach on Friday morning, May 13th, at seven o'clock, 
in cheeringly bright weather. I had chosen the roundabout 
way through Philadelphia and Baltimore in order not to 
be exposed at the beginning of the trip to the great and un- 
interrupted hardships of a stage coach journey to Pittsburgh, 
but to have an interval of some days of rest ; a measure which 
proved to be very wise. The ride to Philadelphia, on which 
for the most part we had little company, was pleasant and left 
us time to do some little errands and to make calls before 
night. 

At six o'clock in the morning of the 14th, we betook our- 
selves on board the steamer and greeted some friends, who 
introduced us to several interesting persons among the nu- 
merous passengers. We began the delightful ride, in excellent 
weather, down the river to the new town of Delaware, a few 
miles below Newcastle, at the mouth of the splendid ship-canal. 
This canal now connects the Delaware with the Chesapeake 
Bay, opposite the fortress on Peapatch, which was destroyed 
by fire only a short while ago. It is needless to give a de- 
tailed description of the comfort, elegance, and speed of travel 
on these magnificent and large steamers upon which one dines 
almost better than in the best hotels. It is also easy to imag- 
ine the charm of floating down the river, covered with ships, 



216 Von Schweinitz Journey 1831 

and along the occasionally beautiful banks. Since the route 
to Baltimore is not apt to be overcrowded — perhaps seventy or 
eighty passengers at most — everything can be enjoyed in com- 
fort. As for conversation, it is by all means very desirable 
to be introduced to some fellow-passenger since otherwise, 
as is well known, in America, it is difficult to engage in con- 
versation. 

Soon after ten o'clock we arrived at the entrance of the 
canal, left the steamer, and went down a board walk several 
hundred paces long to the packetboat lying in the canal. This 
boat is drawn by five briskly trotting horses and is fitted up 
with the same splendor and comfort. In spite of the summer 
heat we remained on deck most of the time and enjoyed the 
interesting trip, fourteen English miles long, right across the 
state of Delaware. For a long time the canal runs through 
great swamps and ponds. One must be acquainted with the 
history of this country in order to realize the difficulties of 
the great enterprise which has cost over four million dollars. 
These difficulties are by no means obvious, as hardly anything 
is seen but a path, rising a few feet above the water, for the 
horses. To achieve this was the great task, since the filling 
required endless efforts. In many places one hundred feet 
of sand were excavated before firm soil was reached. A 
daily increasing navigation passes through this canal from the 
Chesapeake Bay to the Delaware, and vice versa. We met 
a large number of vessels which were all drawn by horses. 
There were only two locks. About seven miles from 
the Delaware the so-called Deep Cut, which is three 
miles long, is reached. Here the canal is cut right 
through the sandhills, to a depth of one hundred feet 
at the highest point, and a wonderful one-arch bridge, which 
serves as a highway across the canal, extends across the ex- 
cavation at an incredible height. It requires great effort to 
keep the sides of this immense excavation from caving in. 
Soon after it is passed, the canal debouches into Back Creek, 
an inlet of the Chesapeake Bay, where one boards another 



Von Schweinitz Journey 1831 217 

steamer, which is lying ready. After a ride of some length 
upon the narrower branches of this bay, we reached its wider 
expanse, as smooth as glass that day and covered with count- 
less large and small craft, and sailed along, not far from the 
mouths of its great rivers such as the Susquehannah. The 
ride becomes supremely beautiful after one has entered the 
Patapsco at North Point and approaches the city of Balti- 
more past Fort McHenry and the Lazaretto. 7 We arrived there 
quite early, having covered the whole distance of 130 English 
miles from Philadelphia, according to the newspapers, in a 
little less than ten hours. 

I had intended to spend Sunday, the 15th, quietly in Bal- 
timore, but soon found that I should have to wait until Tues- 
day morning, unless I wanted to go by the stage coach proper, 
which covers the 266 miles to Wheeling on the Ohio in three 
and a half days without nightly stops, which seemed to me 
to be too much of a venture. The accommodation coach, 
which allows nightly rests of several hours, leaves Baltimore 
only every other day. I readily agreed to this delay, for there 
could be no lack of pleasant acquaintances as we had received, 
that very night, a very kind invitation for the next day from 
Mr. William Frick, a highly esteemed lawyer and former 
pupil of Nazareth Hall. Apart from seeing the most inter- 
esting things in the city during the next two days — on Mon- 
day, we were often in the company of the Lutheran minister, 
Mr. Uhlhorn, who was exceedingly kind to us — we spent many 
pleasant hours at Mr. Frick's, who introduced me also to sev- 
eral naturalists whom I did not yet know personally. Mean- 
while Brother Frueauf had an opportunity to meet again, to 
their mutual pleasure, many of his former fellow-pupils of 
Nazareth Hall. 

The renewal of my acquaintance at Mr. Frick's, with Mr. 
William Winchester, an old schoolmate of mine, whom I have 



7 The Lazaretto, authorized by the General Assembly of Mary- 
land in 1801, was used for smallpox patients. It is now used as a 
workshop for the lighthouse near by, to which its name has been 
transferred. 



218 Von Schweinitz Journey 1831 

not seen for almost forty years, was quite unexpected, but all 
the more delightful, because I was under the impression that 
I had heard of his death long ago. Mr. Winchester is the pres- 
ent director of the city water works. Besides happily recalling 
times long gone by, it was particularly gratifying to me to hear 
from him the statement that he was fully convinced that he 
owed it to the deep impressions of religion received during his 
schooling at Nazareth, that its heavenly consolation had never 
forsaken him among all the varying experiences of life. He 
knew that the same was also true of his sisters, who were 
educated at Bethlehem at that time and who had had to en- 
dure very great afflictions. Of course the state of my health 
forbade me to comply with Mr. Uhlhorn's request to preach 
in his church on Sunday, just as I had to deny myself all 
strenuous walking. From here I wrote home for the first 
time and could report an improvement of my health which 
surpassed my expectation. 

Early on the 17th we were ready for the carriage which 
was to take us shortly to the depot of the Baltimore Railroad, 8 
recently completed as far as this part is concerned. On this 
route one travels the first eleven miles to Ellicott's Mills by 
rail and not until then does he board the regular stage coach. 
This immense enterprise is to be continued to the Ohio — and 
twenty-eight more miles have actually been completed in the 
course of this summer — in order to preserve part of the west- 
ern commerce for Baltimore. However greatly exaggerated 
the expectations for these enterprises may be, they are, never- 
theless, worthy of admiration. Surely the owners of real 
estate in a city like Baltimore may well invest several hnudred 
thousand dollars in such enterprises without much hope of 
considerable return from their charges, if, thereby, the value 
of their real estate in the city is doubled or trebled. This 
really seems to be the way they are calculating and it has al- 
ready, in great measure, proved correct. I am not in a posi- 



8 The Baltimore and Ohio. To von Schweinitz, as late as May, 183 1, 
the enterprise consisted of laying rails so as to increase the load horses 
could draw. He says nothing of locomotives. 



Von Schweinitz Journey 1831 219 

tion to describe the work here, since we could make only 
imperfect observations during the drowsy ride in the rather 
uncomfortable railroad coach, which, in spite of its size and 
load (about twenty persons), was drawn by only one horse. 

At Ellicott's Mills we had an unusually poor breakfast, at 
a very high price, and then got into the comfortable accom- 
modation coach running to Hagerstown by way of Frederic [k]- 
town. Through Baltimore and Anne Arundel counties one 
strikes hardly any good land except where there are immense 
plantations of wealthy proprietors, as, for example, that of 
the well-known Charles Caroll, of Carollton, where the homes 
of the negroes form whole villages; one also strikes, besides, 
a few miserable looking places such as Lisbon, New Market, 
and the like. Nevertheless, the entire road between Hagers- 
town and Baltimore was covered with an unparalleled number 
of six-horse teams, all carrying flour to the city. We counted 
over three hundred of them this day. After having progressed 
a considerable distance in Frederic [k] County, we enjoyed the 
splendid fertile region, which kept increasing, in charm and 
beauty as far as Hagerstown in Washington County. An in- 
tervening range of hills afforded an excellent opportunity for 
an outlook, far and wide, without interfering much with the 
unusually fine turnpike, upon which we were proceeding so 
fast. We reached the town soon after sunset, after having 
traveled eighty odd miles this day. We could enjoy a longer 
rest than we had expected, because we did not start again 
until four o'clock on the morning of the 18th. That morning 
I awoke with peculiar feelings, thinking of my dear wife who 
was celebrating her birthday that day, and all day long, I 
was with her and my family in spirit a great deal. 

From here on we found the coach well filled. The lovely 
fertile country was gradually approaching the mountains, 
which, however, were not actually to be traversed this day, 
since the road descends into the valley of the Potomac and 
continues in it as far as Hancock. Here the state of Mary- 
land grows exceedingly narrow because, as is well known, 



220 Von Schweinitz Journey 1831 

the Potomac which all along forms the boundary between it 
and Virginia approaches the southern boundary of Pennsyl- 
vania within two or three miles. Farther west in Allegheny 
County the state expands again considerably. Although 
mountainous, the turnpike remained good; we made only 
fifty-six miles this day, however, and spent the night at an 
isolated inn. 

By breakfast time on the 19th we reached the town of 
Cumberland, where begins the ill- famed National Road, 
which was to connect the western with the Atlantic states 
across the Allegheny Mountains. It was constructed several 
years ago by enormous appropriations by Congress, and sat- 
isfied all requirements by effecting a welcome improvement 
in transportation, but at present, especially here in the moun- 
tains, it has relapsed again into a deplorable state of decay 
in consequence of the violent controversies which have arisen 
about it. As is well known, a large party denies to the 
United States any constitutional right, even with the consent 
of the individual states, to spend money on internal improve- 
ments, since this is the business of the indvidual states; just 
as it is admitted there exists no right to levy turnpike tolls. 
The latter fact has prevented the necessary annual repairs 
of the National Road because new appropriations for it were, 
for the most part, refused. A large part of the road has 
therefore got into such a condition that it is inadvisable, on 
account of the cost of the repairs immediately devolving upon 
them, for the states of Maryland and Pennsylvania to take 
it over from the federal government, as the state of Ohio 
has lately done with its part of the road, which is still in 
good condition. Travelers to whom, as to us, the beginning 
of this great work is indicated by a loaded wagon, lying com- 
pletely overturned at the bottom of a sharp, deep incline, and 
whose bones are jolted to pieces on the terribly torn-up road, 
would find less difficulty in overcoming the constitutional 
scruples which prevent the repairs of this road than do the 
gentlemen in Congress in their upholstered seats. It is to be 



Von Schweinitz Journey 1831 221 

greatly regretted that the millions spent on it in so useful 
a way must be regarded as thrown away. At times it was 
better to go on foot. I could not, however, do this very long, 
although it afforded me much botanical enjoyment in the 
higher mountain regions where, by the way, the oaks and 
similar trees were just beginning to put forth their foliage. 
In addition we had a severe thunderstorm and a rather 
heavy rain. About eight o'clock in the evening we entered 
the state of Pennsylvania and spent the night at Smithfield in 
a romantic mountain valley. 

The ride on the 20th began at four o'clock in the morning 
and, as the condition of the road improved, it soon grew very 
interesting. From the crest of the last Allegheny Mountain 
range, Laurel Hill, one enjoys an incomparably wide and 
splendid outlook over the western country, and finds that he 
is now in the great Mississippi Valley into which all streams 
west of the mountains are gathered. At the important town 
of Union 9 in Fayette County, the Yohiogany 10 is crossed and 
at Brownsville, whence steamboats go to Pittsburgh, the Mo- 
nongahela is crossed by ferry. Fayette and Washington 
counties are distinguished by very charming, cultivated, but 
quite hilly regions, in which unusually extensive sheep breed- 
ing is to be seen. In the county seat of the latter, which 
has the same name, a large steam mill was burnt in the pre- 
ceding night. We found excellent night lodgings there and 
since there was not any hurry, we did not proceed upon our 
journey to Wheeling until after breakfast on the 21st. 

The road here is still in a passable condition and exceed- 
ingly charming, in part even romantic. Right after the little 
town of West Alexandria, which was almost entirely burnt 
down two weeks ago, we reached the state of Virginia, 11 a 
long narrow strip of which penetrates far north between the 
straight west line of Pennsylvania and the Ohio. At the same 



9 Uniontown. 

10 The Youghiogheny flows east of Uniontown which is on a 
smaller tributary of it. 

ia This region is now a part — the "Panhandle" — of West Virginia. 



222 Von Schweinitz Journey 1831 

time we reached the valley of Wheeling Creek, which, after 
two o'clock, we crossed perhaps thirty times on small bridges, 
finally reaching the town of Wheeling on the great Ohio 
River. 

I planned to embark here on the Ohio and to make the 
journey as far as Madison, in the state of Indiana, by water. 
After spending the remainder of the day pleasantly and rest- 
ing well after the ride, which had been much less fatiguing 
than I expected, we awaited a steamer on a rainy Whitsunday, 
the 22nd. A large number of these vessels, of from one to 
five hundred tons, are constantly plying the river from Pitts- 
burgh down to Louisville and even all the way to New Or- 
leans. At places like Wheeling they generally put to shore 
to see whether passengers are to be had. Of course, how- 
ever, they cannot keep any definite hours and it is necessary 
to wait till a boat going in the desired direction appears. 
The "Potomac," with Captain Stone in command, appeared soon 
after ten o'clock ; it was, to be sure, One of the smaller steam- 
ers, yet had excellent furnishings. We therefore did not find 
it worth while to wait for a larger one and agreed with the 
captain on ten dollars a person for the passage to Louisville, 
Kentucky, at the great falls of the Ohio, a distance of 550 
English miles, which he hoped to cover within three and a 
half days. Board, which is as good as at the best inns, is 
included in that rate. We had decided to go all the way 
to Louisville, although it is fifty odd miles farther than nec- 
essary, because otherwise we should have arrived too early 
at Madison to go immediately on the stage coach into the 
interior. The cost was only slightly increased thereby, and it 
was desirable to see this important commercial town in Ken- 
tucky. 

By far the most of the steamers on the Ohio and Mississippi 
are so-called high pressure boats, from which superfluous 
steam escapes every minute automatically through a pipe, 
making a fearful noise, which in still weather and evenings 
can be heard over four miles on the river. The whole con- 



Von Schweinitz Journey 1831 223 

struction of these vessels is very different from that of the 
steamers on the northern rivers. The larger ones have three 
decks, rising one above the other, the length of a frigate. 
The cabins for the ladies and gentlemen are usually on the 
upper deck; on ours, they were on the lower, back of the en- 
gines. All are equipped not only for passengers, but also for 
heavy freight, as they carry an immense trade. They are, 
nevertheless, always crowded with passengers because, besides 
the large number in the cabins, crowds of deck passengers, 
emigrants, and so forth — often with horses and wagons — make 
use of them. 

Life on such a steamer is quite unique. The throng of 
people, the noise of the steam, the continuous, pulsating vibra- 
tion ; the changing scenes of the glorious, almost wholly wood- 
ed, hilly banks of the gigantic river, which here and there 
form valleys, either receding or approaching, with newly set- 
tled towns and active cultivation frequently seen on both 
sides; charming groups of islands around which one navigates 
with great caution to avoid hidden snags and dangers of all 
sorts ; the close perpendicular river banks, always the same, 
with their denuded, horizontal stratifications — all these make a 
combination which one must see and hear in order to com- 
prehend, especially to realize the impression one gets when 
these scenes remain almost entirely the same for days and 
nights. The cabins and berths, usually most elegantly deco- 
rated, are fitted up as comfortably as can possibly be desired, 
and nowhere is an opportunity wanting to spend the time 
pleasantly in viewing the interesting scenes. 

Very often a short stop is made in order to replenish, 
from the long rows of corded wood piled up for this purpose 
all along the bank, the stock on board, which is kept small in 
order not to lose space for freight. Vessels going upstream, 
however, take flatboats, lying ready for this purpose, loaded 
with wood, with them for some distance until their supply is 
hauled aboard; then the flatboats can easily go back to their 
places with the current. From time to time calls are made 



224 Von Schweinitz Journey 1831 

at small towns, where passengers, and occasionally also freight, 
are taken on and off ; and whenever a signal is given from 
the bank, the small boat puts off to pick up passengers who 
desire to come along. When one becomes accustomed to the 
noise of the steam and the pulsating vibrations, one enjoys a 
good rest by night and day in the comfortable berths. 

Aside from the steamers, the river is still plied by many 
keelboats and flatboats which come principally from the smaller 
streams flowing into it, but they go almost exclusively down- 
stream. Frequently we meet other steamers which are a won- 
derful sight, especially by night, as their fire is seen from 
afar. On the steep banks close at hand, there is an oppor- 
tunity to observe closely the origin of the dangerous snags 
which hinder navigation so much on the Ohio and still more 
on the Mississippi. Everywhere are to be seen living and 
dead trees, of large and medium size, the whole root system 
of which has gradually been denuded of all earth; they are 
swept into the river by the high floods. The weight of the 
entanglement, which hangs on the roots, sinks them somewhere 
and causes them to get fastened in the mud at the bottom. 
The branches soon break off and the trunk stays, retaining a 
slanting position in the direction of the current. It knocks 
most dangerous holes in vessels, which, going upstream dur- 
ing the night or in a fog, happen upon such a snag, as it is 
called. In the course of this year several of the largest steam- 
ers on the Mississippi have been wrecked in this way. In 
dense fog it is therefore customary to anchor, especially when 
going upstream. 

It is strange how insignificant the mouths of the large 
rivers, such as the Muskingum, Scioto, and the Miami on the 
Ohio side, and the two Kanawhas and the Kentucky on the 
opposite side, appear, principally on account of the deep in- 
dentations into which they flow and which are generally seen 
only at an angle. However interesting such a trip may be, 
one still needs reading matter to keep from becoming bored, 
if it lasts for days, just as on the ocean. 



Von Schweinitz Journey 1831 225 

On the 24th, about half past two o'clock, we made the 
first stop of any length at the exceedingly beautiful city of 
Cincinnati, which contains almost 30,000 inhabitants. We re- 
mained here a couple of hours since part of the cargo had 
to be unloaded. We availed ourselves of the opportunity to 
look around a little in the city, but only in the vicinity of 
the curious landing place where the steep river bank, paved 
and graded off to a sloping surface, forms a large square sur- 
rounded by buildings, which, by the time we arrived here 
again on our return, had been almost consumed by fire. Little 
distress was shown, however, because the buildings were of 
small value and now are to be replaced by large, magnificent 
ones. 

Very early in the morning of the 25th, we arrived at 
Madison, where again freight and passengers were landed, 
and then we proceeded at high speed to Louisville. From the 
beginning of our boat trip, down to below Cincinnati, we had 
the states of Ohio and Indiana on our right side ; on our left, 
we had Virginia down to the mouth of the Sandy River, and 
then Kentucky. The name of a certain little town below Madi- 
son we learned, curiously enough, was Bethlehem. It is, in- 
deed, quite strange how the same place-names are repeated 
innumerable times in the West, to the great inconvenience and 
uncertainty of addresses. Washington, Columbus and Colum- 
bia, Salem, and Alexandria are names met with almost every 
other day, as if no new names could be invented any more. 
It is a matter of regret that the often euphonious Indian 
geographical names are so rarely used, especially for the rivers. 
To change the designation of the second branch of the Mus- 
kingum, which together with Tuscarawas, forms this river, 
from the Indian Walhonding into White Woman is bad taste. 12 

The approach to Louisville, the flourishing and leading 
commercial city of Kentucky, was very pleasant. Only when 
the landing is reached — where we counted eighteen steamers 



12 The name Walhonding is now used. The Walhonding and the 
Tuscarawas unite at Coshocton. 



226 Von Schweinitz Journey 1831 

at that time — does one see the loud-roaring, rocky reef which 
here interrupts the navigation of the Ohio and changes its 
otherwise quiet current into raging waters. The level of the 
river was at that time still too high to admire the beauty of 
this cataract; indeed, at the very highest level, it disappears 
almost entirely. A two-mile canal, cut through the rocks from 
Louisville, has now been completed at great cost, so that the 
steamers from New Orleans can now go up to the town, in- 
stead of being compelled as formerly to remain at Shippings- 
port to unload. 

We found accommodations in a very elegant hotel and 
on this day and the following, we examined everything note- 
worthy and worth seeing, in which we were aided by the 
courtesy of a merchant, Mr. Danforth, to whom we were 
recommended. The canal, its locks, and the immense com- 
mercial activity formed a prominent part of the sights. The 
town itself contains many fine buildings and is quite large. 
Below the falls, on the opposite side in the state of Indiana, 
there is also a considerable town, New Albany. 

[In Indiana] 

As we were very anxious not to miss the stage coach, 
which, according to Brother Martin Häuser, 13 left Madison 



13 Martin Häuser, virtually the founder of the Moravian Church 
and first postmaster of the village, was born September 23, 1799, at 
Salem, North Carolina. In 1821 he joined the Moravian Church by 
confirmation; in 1822 he was married to Susanna Chitty. He made 
three trips west, visiting his brother, Jacob, in Indiana in 1820; Gnaden- 
hutten, Ohio, in 1827 ; and Indiana again in 1828. Receiving encourage- 
ment from von Schweinitz in a conference at Bethlehem in the spring 
of 1829, he left Salem with his wife, September 29, 1829, arriving at 
Bartholomew County, October 28. He entered a quarter section on 
Haw Creek, and receiving $200 from von Schweinitz, entered the land 
on which Hope was laid out. He organized a Sunday school and 
church. On March 19, 1833, he was ordained deacon at Bethelehem. 
He received no salary as minister at Hope. In 1838 he resigned his 
charge there, but continued to visit Moravian groups at Enon, Tough 
Creek, New Holland, Coleman's and Warren's schoolhouses, and in 
Hendricks County. In 1846 he was finally granted permission to or- 
ganize a society at Enon, five miles south of Hope. 

In 1847 he was sent to Edwards County, Illinois, where he founded 
New Salem, later West Salem. He preached also occasionally at 
Woods Prairie, Wannboro, Albion, and Olney. His wife died May 2, 
1867. On June 21, 1868, he married Eliza Spaugh, widow, and spent 



Von Schweinitz Journey 1831 227 

for Columbus every Saturday, we decided to start on our 
return journey about six o'clock in the evening, on the 26th, 
on our steamer, the "Potomac," which was returning with cargo. 
This afforded us the enjoyment of an indescribably glorious 
moonlight evening on the river until late into the night — 
followed, however, by an unsatisfactory rest, which was in- 
terrupted two hours sooner than necessary by the false report 
that we had arrived at Madison, when it was only London. 
We actually arrived about four o'clock in the morning, when 
we were disembarked with our baggage in great haste upon a 
floating pier or wharf, provided with a watchman. Fortunate- 
ly, however, we found a porter who carried our things to Mr. 
Pugh's Inn in town. There we at once learned that, owing 
to impassable roads and missing bridges, the stage coach had 
not yet been able to run this year, but that it was expected 
to do so for the first time four days later. As there was no 
other way of getting to Bartholomew County, we had to re- 
sign ourselves to this tedious delay, which promised to be de- 
prived of part of its disagreeableness by several letters of in- 
troduction which I had to gentlemen of this place. When 
we finally went to breakfast at seven o'clock, we were not 
a little surprised to see our Bethlehem friend, Captain Schulz, 
of the cavalry, who is established in the vicinity of Cincinnati. 
He was here on business and remained until the evening of 
the following day. 

In the course of the forenoon, I delivered to Mr. [William] 
Hendricks, senator of the United States, my letter of intro- 
duction addressed to him, whereupon he informed us that, at 
ten o'clock that morning, there commenced a so-called four 
days' "meeting" of the Presbyterians and took me to church 
with him at once. Such "meetings" are held everywhere to 
produce revivals and were continued daily during our entire 
stay here without interruption, save for meals and short inter- 
missions, from nine o'clock in the morning until after eleven 



most of the rest of his life at Hope. He died on October 25, 1875. 
Häuser Diary, photostat copy in the Indiana State Library. 



228 Von Schweinitz Journey 1831 

o'clock at night. After a very brief address several members 
of the church were asked to offer prayer, and hymns were 
sung in the intermissions. Sometimes, also, members of the 
congregation were asked to sing a hymn, which they did, but 
it was always the same, "Alas! and did my Savior bleed." 
Then the various ministers present likewise offered long pray- 
ers, sang hymns, and delivered very eloquent sermons. After 
the first prayer meeting, at which, among others, a venerable 
old man offered a touching evangelical prayer in simple, heart- 
felt language — which unfortunately he repeated just the same 
way every day — Mr. Hendricks introduced me to Mr. John- 
ston, 14 the Presbyterian minister here, and several other gen- 
tlemen, all members of the church, the ones to whom I had 
my letters of introduction to deliver. They expressed them- 
selves pleased to see me here, but could not take any other 
notice of me under the circumstances. 

Owing to my misunderstanding a question which Mr. John- 
s[t]on asked me, I had the terrible experience at the close 
of the sermon, when it was already two o'clock, to hear an- 
nounced from the pulpit that a Moravian preacher present 
would preach at three o'clock in the afternoon. I felt en- 
tirely unable to do so, particularly after a sleepless night, 
without any preparation and without knowledge of the spirit 
reigning here, of which so far I had received the impression 
that, though it aimed at the Good, it sought to force it and 
bring it about in a manner with which I could by no means 
agree. I therefore felt obliged to correct this error in public 
and to allege among other reasons the state of my health, 
which forbade me to preach in public at the time — and it 



14 The Reverend James Harvey Johnston, a graduate of Princeton 
Theological Seminary, arrived at Madison in 1824 as representative of 
the Domestic Missionary Society of New York. He was a pastor at 
Madison for eighteen years. After 1843 Crawfordsville was the center 
of his activities. He died in 1876 after a service in Indiana of fifty- 
one years — the longest in the annals of the Presbyterian Church in the 
state. See Edson, Harrford A., Contributions to the Early History of 
the Presbyterian Church in Indiana, together with Biographical Notices 
<vf the Pioneer Ministers, Index (Cincinnati, Indianapolis, Chicago, 
1898). 



Von Schweinitz Journey 1831 229 

certainly would have had the most injurious consequences to 
me on account of the inevitable great uneasiness in which I 
should have been. This reason had to be accepted, but it 
also necessarily precluded my mounting the pulpit on any of 
the following days, when it might have been possible. How- 
ever, Mr. Johns [t] on very kindly took me to his small dwell- 
ing with him and kept me for dinner, where also Mr. Cush- 
man, the delegate of the Society from Cincinnati which is 
carrying on these efforts, was staying. Although when I left 
his house, Mr. Johns [t] on invited me to call often — since it 
was impossible for me to remain the whole time at the church 
— I could not make up my mind to inconvenience him again, 
especially since more and more ministers arrived and over- 
crowded his house. Furthermore, I could not possibly feel 
called upon to take part in these proceedings, as oftentimes I 
could not have done so without denying my convictions. 

Upon the whole, I cannot deny, indeed, that the teachings 
propounded contained the gospel, and some of the discourses 
heard during that time — for I spent all the forenoons at the 
church — were truly evangelical and edifying. Others, to the 
contrary, which were intended to arouse the sinners, either 
wholly kept from them Him who has come to seek and save 
what is lost, or else put Him in the background. The angry 
Jehovah, however, represented as an avenger, was described 
in fearful manner as endeavoring to strike them down before 
they reached refuge. The love of Jesus for the repenting sin- 
ner, which attracts him and encourages him when he is weary 
and heavily laden, to seek refuge with Him, was not mentioned 
at all or only quite incidentally. 

On Sunday afternoon the Lord's Supper was celebrated, 
for which a solemn invitation was issued to all who wished to 
partake in it, without distinction of denomination, provided 
they were communicants of a church which accepted a long 
series of precepts, which were pronounced so indistinctly that 
I understood but few of them. I was not without concern, 
that my standing back and taking little part therein might 



230 Von Schweinitz Journey 1831 

make a disadvantageous impression, particularly after the pub- 
lic announcement made known to the whole town that I was 
a minister, but I felt unable to take part without doing vio- 
lence to my convictions. I refrained, however, from all com- 
ment on the manifold and varied remarks which I overheard, 
the most painful of which concerned the everyday life of 
many of the most zealous participants in this movement. 

From Sunday on, when those in whom the Spirit was 
manifest, were repeatedly asked to come forward in public, the 
prayers and discourses were most eagerly directed at produc- 
ing expressions of revival. Some young women had finally 
stepped up in the evening and were worked upon, in public 
and in private, with indescribable zeal. During the whole time 
the church was crowded. 

On Monday, the 30th, without any noticeable interference 
with the meetings, a very large muster of militia was held, at 
which a number of candidates at the impending elections for 
Congress, state governor, and Assembly, made speeches to 
the people and great excesses were committed. Although no 
drinks at all are served in respectable inns, I have rarely seen 
so many people drunk and nowhere so many brawls and rows, 
for the populace of Indiana develops a fearful rudeness on 
such occasions. 

The somewhat painful situation in which I was placed 
under these circumstances did not make this four days' stay 
agreeable, particularly as there was wholly lacking a suitable 
place in which to sit down at the inn, and I longed exceedingly 
to go further. For this reason, we felt not a little embarrassed, 
when, instead of the expected stage coach, news came Monday 
evening by the arriving postman that it was still impossible 
to get through and that we should have to wait again until 
Friday. This induced us to try our utmost to get off in 
some other way. The landlord was willing to let us have his 
two horses, but all efforts to get hold of a conveyance were 
of no avail, because in this country it is not customary to 
travel otherwise than on horseback. Finally our landlord was 



Von Schweinitz Journey 1831 231 

so kind as to have the bed of a large winter sleigh fastened 
on the wheels of a wagon and so to form a vehicle in which 
it was possible to travel after a fashion. It was a great pleas- 
ure to us that a young Swiss, Mr. Zehender, of a Bernese 
family, who had served in a Dutch Swiss regiment, now re- 
organized, and who was staying in this vicinity for pleasure, 
joined our party to Columbus and thereby lightened our ex- 
penses. We not only had many very interesting conversations 
with him — he was well acquainted in Montmirail, where two 
of his sisters were educated — but our suppers were improved 
by his hunting along the road, because he did not miss any of 
the edible small game, such as squirrels, snipes, or rabbits, 
which we happened on to. It should be mentioned that in 
Madison and vicinity several Swiss families have settled, who 
were all very friendly towards us. 

About ten o'clock in the morning we began our journey 
in a northerly direction in very hot weather. On an exceed- 
ingly narrow, steep road, made almost impassable by deep 
ruts, we wound our way slowly up the hills which everywhere 
skirt the Ohio more or less closely. Halfway up, in order to 
get past, we had to lend a helping hand to a wagon drawn 
by six oxen which had got stuck. The crest of the hills 
consists of vertical rocky walls. It is remarkable that in the 
whole Mississippi Valley all stratifications without exception 
are perfectly horizontal and nowhere have an inclined position, 
as in our country. When one reaches the top, the country 
expands into a broad plain, with only here and there deep 
valleys of creeks and rivers, and one soon begins to admire 
the immense height and thickness of the trees. To be sure 
the woods are quite vast everywhere, but great was our as- 
tonishment at the quantity of land already in a high state of 
cultivation and at the frequency of the plantations. We had 
a pretty good road for the first eight or twelve miles, as far as 
to a private house, where quite a refreshing dinner was served 
to us. From there on it became exceedingly difficult. For 
long distances it passes through wet, swampy, though not in- 



232 Von Schweinitz Journey 1831 

fertile, beech woods, over an almost continuous so-called cor- 
duroy bridge, which was, moreover, in a very ruinous condi- 
tion, so that one was almost jolted to pieces. On this account, 
my companions traveled much on foot. Yet everywhere it 
proved possible to get through all right, and we reached our 
first lodging-place, Vernon, the capital of Jennings County, in 
good time. There had been a muster there that day, and 
sad scenes of drunkenness could be observed everywhere; yet 
we were excellently entertained, in part, with our own game, 
and had good lodgings. 

We started rather early on June 1st to continue our jour- 
ney of about twenty-five miles, which from all sides we heard 
described in such a manner that we were well prepared to 
experience something unusual. And that was really the case. 
The almost endless corduroy road was constantly interrupted 
by immense holes into which our wagon many times jolted 
down a foot and a half from the hard road, so that the horses 
sank to their bellies in mud : often they were in such a condi- 
tion that it was impossible to get through at all. We then 
turned unhesitatingly into the most dense wood with tangled 
underbrush and after a long, roundabout way, during which 
the skill of our driver in winding his way between big, dense 
trees and fallen tree trunks could not be admired too much, 
we came back to the road scarcely one hundred paces from 
where we had entered it. The same thing happened when 
fallen trees, often four or five feet in diameter, lay clear 
across the road. Needless to say, under such circumstances we 
progressed very slowly. Sometimes we came to splendidly 
cultivated spaces, which, to be sure, were only half cleared 
of their trees, as it is not over fifteen years since the whole 
tract was purchased from the Indians. 15 Whoever has not 
seen it before must marvel at the rich grain fields which seem 
to be growing up in the midst of the woods, while great dead 
trees, girded and burned but still standing, are so numerous in 



15 This was in the "New Purchase" secured by treaty with the In- 
dians at St. Mary's in October, 1818. 



Von Schweinitz Journey 1831 233 

them that anywhere else they would form a well-forested tract. 
In these parts, all this work of clearing is particularly difficult, 
because of the beeches and sugar-maple trees, which, to- 
gether with the tulip trees (Liriodendron) [Liriodendron 
tulipifera], by far the largest of all, are the most numerous. 16 
We often saw in one place many tulip trees with trunks 
straight as an arrow, eighty or more feet in height and five 
or six feet in diameter. They are exceedingly hard to kill 
and usually keep putting forth leaves, though smaller ones, for 
two years. 

More than once we had to ford little rivers of considerable 
size, all of them branches of White River, which flows into 
the Wabash at the western edge of the state. Although none 
of them was difficult to cross at the time, it was easy to 
imagine the difficulties which any heavy or long continued rain 
produces, for all of them, as is true of the western streams 
generally, rise extraordinarily in incredibly short time, so that 
often creeks which seem quite insignificant suddenly detain 
one for days. 

We had our breakfast in a building which externally was 
quite an ordinary cabin, built and roofed with logs. Inside, 
however, everything was very respectable and even elegant, 
as this building is the new town of Solon, 17 the printed ad- 
vertisements for which we had come across everywhere re- 



16 The bloom of the tulip or yellow poplar tree, Liriodendron tulipi- 
fera, is the state flower of Indiana. 

17 According to the Indiana Gazeteer (2nd ed. 1833), Solon, in Jen- 
nings County, was laid out by Solon Robinson thirteen miles north- 
west of Vernon on the state road to Columbus. Its founder moved 
there in 1830 and abandoned it in 1834. It must not be confused with 
the present Solon in Clark County. 

Solon Robinson was the first settler, a "squatter," in Lake 
County and one of the most interesting citizens ever resident in Indi- 
ana. He was a pioneer in many things, but chiefly in methods of 
agriculture and in the dissemination of agricultural information. He 
became editor of the agricultural department of the New York Tribune 
in 1850, and retained this position till his death, thus being closely as- 
sociated with Horace Greeley and Charles A. Dana. He was born near 
Tolland, Connecticut, October 21, 1803, and died at Jacksonville, Flor- 
ida, November 3, 1880. See typed copy of address delivered by A. F. 
Knotts before Old Settlers and Historical Society of Lake County at 
Crown Point, August 27, 1921, Indiana State Library. 



234 Von Schweinitz Journey 1831 

cently. We would have noted with pleasure the valuable 
library of the owner, if the atheist newspapers of Miss Frances 
Wright, 18 lying about in profusion, and public effusions 
against clergy, temperance society, etc., had not shown how, 
even here, the lamentable reaction against the exaggerations 
of the times is producing its injurious effects and most sadly 
increasing the confusion of mind generated by religious con- 
tentiousness. 

From there on, the badness of the road came to a climax, 
and we approached Brush Creek, where the collapse of the 
bridge had been the main cause of the non-arrival of the stage 
coach. Wagon-drivers whom we met gave terrifying ac- 
counts of the difficult and roundabout route which was the 
only possible way to get through the bottomless swamp which 
encompasses it, but when we came up, a large body of men 
who were reconstructing the bridge, called to us from afar 
that, if we would wait a short quarter of an hour, we might 
be the first to cross the new bridge. We were glad to do 
so and watched with amazement the skill with which these 
people were able to handle their only tool, the axe. In an in- 
credibly short time, the tree trunk which was still wanting 
to complete the flooring of the bridge was cut down, squared 
most neatly and exactly, and fitted into the opening, so that 
we could cross the dangerous place with gratitude and with- 
out any other trouble than to accept a draught of whisky 
from the people amidst their loud hurrahs. But for still an- 
other mile or more the road was as bad as it could possibly be ; 
then it became, on the whole, quite good. After riding through 
the most fertile plantations with good brick houses, before five 
o'clock we reached Columbus, the capital of Bartholomew 



18 Frances or Fanny Wright (Mrs. Frances d'Arusmont), 1795- 
1852, was an early radical and advocate of women's rights. She re- 
sided for some years at New Harmony, where in 1828 she was an 
editor of The New Harmony and Nashoba Gazette, or Free Enquirer, 
and joined in transferring the paper to New York and continuing it 
under the name of the Free Enquirer. See Dictionary of National Bi- 
ography, Stephen, Leslie, (ed.), under Arusmont; also Waterman, Wil- 
liam Randall, Frances Wright {Columbia University Studies in His- 
tory, Economics, and Public Law, vol. CXV, No. 1, New York, 1924). 



Von Schweinitz Journey 1831 235 

County, named for a general of the militia who distinguished 
himself in the Indian war.' 19 

By mistake we did not take up our quarters at the inn 
indicated to me by Brother Martin Hauser, so that I had 
to go on to Mr. Jones, and found there that everything had 
been attended to all right. He was willing to take us early 
in the morning to Jacob Häuser, a brother of Martin, well 
known to me in Salem, who, however, had joined the Baptists. 
It was quite evident that my arrival here, heralded long be- 
fore, created quite a sensation and perhaps had also given 
rise to many absurd rumors, for the settling of the Moravians 
is causing quite a stir here. Although a crowd of people 
gathered around me immediately, on this account, all were 
exceedingly polite and obliging. 

On June 2nd, after breakfast Mr. Jones called for us with 
his stage coach and took us the four miles to our friend, Jacob 
Häuser, whom we found in the woods not far from his fine 
brick house. His plantation is located on a wide, exceed- 
ingly fertile plain, called Haw Patch, on the Flatrock River, 
which even here is navigable in spring. At Columbus it flows 
into the Driftwood, which is about half the size of our Lehigh 
and carries considerable traffic. This Haw Patch, which has 
been thickly settled for little more than seven years, looks 
already like an older settlement and contains extensive plan- 
tations. Jacob could not come home until noon, but we were 
very kindly received by his wife, a native of these parts. After 
dinner he got ready to take us, in his one-horse conveyance the 
twleve or fourteen miles beyond to his brother. Many inter- 
esting exchanges with Jacob along the way gave me an insight 
into the prevailing religious confusion, which has come to 
a climax through the many contending parties and their lead- 
ers who are quite uneducated people. 



19 General Joseph Bartholomew. See Pence, George, "General Bar- 
tholomew," Indiana Biographical Pamphlets, vol. Ill, no. 59 (Colum- 
bus, Ind., 1894) ; also Indiana Magazine of History, vol. XIV, pp. 287-303. 



236 Von Schweinitz Journey 1831 

The first six miles we drove along a wretched road 20 to 
Indianapolis, the capital of the state, situated on the west 
branch of White River, near the place where Brethren Kluge 
and Luckenbach formerly attended to the Indian mission. 21 
Suddenly, however, our experienced guide turned aside right 
into the dense woods, where only a very indistinct, and fre- 
quently wellnigh vanishing footpath indicated the direction. 
We now proceeded very slowly indeed through such deep mud 
— sometimes a morass — that I soon had to give up the at- 
tempt to walk, just as Brethren Frueauf and Häuser had 
done. The dense underbrush, which fortunately consisted only 
of easily breaking laurels (Laurus Benzoin) [Benzoin aesti- 
vale] and pawpaws (Porcelia triloba) [Asimina triloba], served 
as a substratum and support for our one-horse conveyance, since 
we were driving over it incessantly. The small creeks often 
had difficult banks and when we finally came to Tough Creek, 
the crossing was really very hard. However, we succeeded 
and thus reached the settlement of our brethren and sisters, 
though we had totally lost our way. As a matter of fact, 
however, there isn't any road because nobody travels there 
by a conveyance. 

[The Moravian Settlement] 

Philipp Essig 22 met us in the guise of a charcoal burner, 

since he was just burning a kiln ; he gave good advice as to 

how we might wind our way to Martin Hauser's. So we passed 

by several of their newly started plantations — some have been 



20 This was not the state road to Indianapolis, however. Von 
Schweinitz left this road two miles north of Columbus on the "Haw 
Patch" road. At that time, May, 1831, there were but three official 
roads located in Haw Creek Township. The route from Jacob Hauser's 
place to Martin Hauser's was through the "slashes," a swampy wilder- 
ness which had no roads for a number of years. 

21 A Moravian mission among the Delaware Indians on White 
River was established in 1801 by John Peter Kluge and Abraham Luck- 
enbach who were sent from Bethlehem, Pennsylvania, for that purpose. 
The mission was abandoned in 1806, however, owing to the inreasing 
difficulty in the relations between the Indians and the whites. Its 
location on the north bluffs of White River near what is now Ander- 
son is marked by a bronze tablet, placed there in 1913 by the D. A. R. 

22 The surname, Essig, was later Americanized to Essex. 



Von Schweinitz Journey 1831 237 

begun only this spring. As may be easily understood, they 
were scarcely observable, save for the fences and deadened 
trees, in the woods, which surpass everything seen heretofore 
in height, density, and the girth of their varied trees. So we 
lost our bearings again several times until we met Ludwig 
Ried, an old acquaintance in Salem, 23 and were put on the 
right way. Thus, just as it was getting dark, we arrived at 
Martin Hauser's west fence, which we laid down, 24 and then 
sought our own way to his house through his corn, which was 
just coming up. 

The great joy of seeing each other was shared by all 
members of the household, although we really saw each other 
only in the morning, since, during our entire stay, we were 
without any light in the evening, except at supper, unless it 
was cool enough to have a flickering fire in the fireplace. Be- 
sides the five children of Brother and Sister Häuser, there 
lodged with them three unmarried Chittys, brothers of Sister 
Häuser, some of whom had recently arrived from Salem. 
There also lodged with them Brother John Proske, formerly 
employed with the Indian mission, who had also bought land 
here and at the same time leased a lot in the little town of 
Goshen 25 which is being laid out around the schoolhouse, 
where he is building a house to start his shoemaker's trade. 
Brother Hauser's rather spacious log house is nice and well 
built, and has a good roof, but consists of only one room and 
the loft, which is reached by a ladder. In the room, behind 
a screen made of wagon [covers?] and sheets, we found our 
beds already prepared and space for our things, and at the 
back a window. There was another window in the room, 
opposite the door. A smaller log house or cabin close by, 
which however is still entirely open — that is, not filled in 
between the logs — forms the kitchen and dining room, where 



23 Salem, North Carolina, where von Schweinitz had formerly 
preached, and whence most of the Moravians in this settlement had come. 

24 The primitive rail fence, built zigzag fashion of split rails, read- 
ily lent itself to being torn down and rebuilt. 

25 Soon changed to Hope. See Introduction. 



238 Von Schweinitz Journey 1831 

we always betook ourselves with our chairs at meal times. 
Yet its chimney is still lacking and an open fire is kept in 
the house on some large flagstones. Most things, however, 
are cooked outside in the yard, if it is not raining. 

Thus grateful and very happy, we moved into these, our 
present quarters, to stay there until after June 17th, which 
day the brethren and sisters here have chosen for their coming 
congregation festival, for this is the date when, in the name 
of God, they assembled last year, for the first time, in the 
schoolhouse, just built and still without a roof. It was ap- 
parent that any shortening of this time would be very painful 
to them. After our first happy supper, we enjoyed for a 
while the most interesting and remarkable night view from 
the house, in the midst of the half-cleared ten acres, out into 
the high impenetrable woods surrounding it. The woods were 
illuminated by twenty-five or thirty burning log-heaps, built 
of cut timber from four or five acres of lowland, which Brother 
Häuser had planted with corn this spring. The logs continued 
to burn incessantly the first week. After we had enjoyed the 
view, we lay down to rest and I most earnestly commended 
myself and my errands here to the Lord in a simple prayer 
for his support. It pained us this first evening to notice the 
serious eye trouble with which Brother Häuser is afflicted and 
which we greatly hope may not deprive him of one of his eyes. 

It may now be fitting, first of all, to give an idea of the 
general situation. As is well known, all land in the new 
states, and particularly in Indiana, is divided by the United 
States into equal townships of thirty-six square miles. Each 
of these square miles, of which there are six in each direction, 
is a "section" composed of 640 acres. Each section is sub- 
divided once more into eight equal, half-quarter sections, that 
is, eighty acre lots. These divisions, however, are not only on 
paper, but have been actually surveyed and marked on the cor- 
ner trees with their proper numbers. In each township, the 
section which is marked number 16 is the common property of 
all inhabitants of the township and reserved exclusively for the 



Von Schweinitz Journey 1831 239 

support of their primary schools. The remainder of the land is 
open to anybody. After an inspection of the quality and lo- 
cation of the land, fresh water springs, and so forth, every- 
body selects whatever pleases him, usually one or several half- 
quarter sections, from that which is still unoccupied. As soon 
as he has paid down cash, which without variation amounts 
to $100 for eighty acres, in the land office at Indianapolis, the 
piece selected is his absolute property and for the first five 
years is free from taxation. 

The township where most of the brethren and sisters who 
have moved here from North Carolina have settled, and where 
a considerable number still seem to wish to follow, is called 
Haw Creek Township 26 from the two creeks uniting in it, 
which flow into the Driftwood Fork at Columbus, and is 
located in the northeast corner of Bartholomew County. It is 
bordered by Shelby County on the north and by Decatur 
County on the east; on the south, it is adjoined by Clifty 
Township, and on the west, by Flatrock, both of which are 
in Bartholomew County. Some of the brethren and sisters 
are living in Flatrock. 

Several years ago, following the example of other Car- 
olinian neighbors who thought themselves unable to live in 
the comparatively unfertile state of North Carolina, Brother 
Martin Häuser turned toward the state of Indiana and natur- 
ally cast his eye by preference on the part where his brother, 
Jacob, together with other Carolinians, had been settled for 
more than seven years. Since that time he has cherished the 
desire to arrange his settlement in such a manner that those 
North Carolinian emigrants, who, like him, were quite anxious 
to retain their connection with the Moravian Church, might 
settle in the same vicinity, and form a congregation. On the 
occasion of a visit to Pennsylvania four years ago, hope was 
extended to him that a helping hand might be given by the 
purchase of a suitably located piece of land which some time 



26 Haw Creek Township was formed by the Board of Commis- 
sioners on March 2, 1829, from the east end of Flatrock Township. 



240 Von Schweinitz Journey 1831 

might serve as an endowment for the support of a laborer and 
the establishment of a congregation. On this land a church 
and schoolhouse might stand, and around them, perhaps, also 
a little town. When, therefore, over two years ago, he ac- 
tually moved to Indiana with his family, he selected for him- 
self here in Haw Creek Township a very suitable location 
in a most extraordinarily wooded region, to be sure, but ex- 
ceedingly fertile ; rather rolling, healthful, and abundantly sup- 
plied with the best spring water : a place where an unusually 
desirable opportunity for such a settlement presented itself. 
On his representation it was first decided to purchase for the 
above purpose 160 acres, or two half -quarter sections, along 
the south side of his three lots (a tract of 240 acres) to which 
now, during my presence, it was deemed proper to add another 
eighty acres to prevent the intrusion of a stranger. Scarcely 
had this become known when the emigration from Carolina, 
and particularly from the country congregations, took this 
direction and already a considerable number of the half-quar- 
ter sections located in the neighborhood have been purchased 
by brethren and sisters who are gathering here in ever larger 
numbers. 

On the piece they called Goshen, which I purchased, 27 they 
have now jointly cleared five acres around the schoolhouse, 
erected a year ago, in such manner as clearing can be done in 
the beginning, and they have provided them with a good fence. 
On this five-acre lot, also, Brother Häuser has commenced 
to build a house for Brother John Leinbach who wants to 
exercise his trade as a cooper there, and Brother Proske is 
building next to him, but clearing an additional separate acre. 
A couple of other brethren who have moved here, Daniel 
Ziegler 28 and Ludwig Ried, have bought a couple of older 



27 Von Schweinitz advanced the money necessary to purchase land 
for church purposes at a time when the future existence of the Goshen 
(Hope) settlement was uncertain and when Häuser and his fellow- 
settlers were enduring great hardships. Hamilton, History of the 
Moravian Church, p. 358. 

28 Ziegler was one of the five men who made an agreement on January 
2, 1830 that they and their families would form the nucleus of a con- 



Von Schweinitz Journey 1831 241 

plantations which were commenced before Brother Hauser's 
arrival, and therefore have considerable land under cultivation. 
On the others, cultivation was begun in the woods only two 
years ago and on several, only this year. It may therefore be 
imagined how wild and rough it still looks about them and 
that their houses serve only for the most urgent, present ne- 
cessities. Few have yet had the gaps between the logs stopped 
up and plastered : I even noticed a twig, with leaves still 
green, on one of the logs of Philipp Essig's house. But one 
must marvel at how much their industry has accomplished, 
especially if one gets a clear idea of the work required. With- 
out mutual help, it would be entirely impossible to get on, 
particularly with the toilsome log rolling, or with the hauling 
of felled trees into a pile in order to burn them. For, in 
spite of the fact that half of them are left standing, trees cover 
the whole expanse on account of their incredible size and 
height. 

The easily split walnut and cherry wood greatly facilitates 
their fence making. Chestnuts are not often found, nor are 
any coniferous trees anywhere in the state except in the north 
toward Lake Michigan. The beeches and sugar-maples are the 
most numerous, and the poplars (Liriodendron) are the biggest 
and tallest trees. At Brother Dan. Ziegler's house the road 
passes between two poplar stumps which are seven feet in 
diameter each — the felled trunk of one forms the fence for 
seventy or eighty feet and is still over four feet thick at 
the smaller end. Besides these there are found almost as 
huge walnut trees (Juglans nigra and cinerea), shell barks 
(Juglans alba) [Carya ovata], many species of ash, mulberries, 
honey-locusts (Gladitsia) [Gladitsia triancanthos] with and 
without thorns, coffee-trees, (Gymnocladus) [Gymnocladus 
dioicd], elms, immense sycamores (Platanus) [Plantanus oc- 
cidentalism and many other trees, but extremely few oaks. In 
the hollow of one of these sycamores, which was still growing, 



gregation at Goshen, later Hope. The others were Martin Häuser, 
John Essex, Samuel Rominger and Joseph Spaugh. Ibid., p. 358. 



242 Von Schweinitz Journey 1831 

five of us adults assembled and as many again would easily 
have had room. The smaller growth and underbrush is ex- 
ceedingly varied. All the woods are alike in immense height, 
density, and absolute straightness of the trees. 

The ground is a jet-black, rich soil, about four feet deep. 
Stone — and that only a soft limestone which yields excellent 
lime — is found only at the creeks and on the hillsides. In 
spite of the most imperfect ploughing, the only kind which the 
roots filling the ground render possible during the first years, 
Martin has a splendid wheat field, to say nothing of Dan 
Ziegler's and Ried's. As soon as the ground is got into 
proper shape, an acre yields one hundred bushels of corn. 
Everywhere there can be observed the richest growth of grass, 
timothy (Phleum pratense) and here and there, clover. The 
finest apple and peach trees are growing luxuriantly upon the 
older plantations. 

A good flowing spring is found on almost every eighty- 
acre lot, although none so glorious as Martin's, which is one 
of the finest I ever saw and which has delicious water. But 
very good water may be had anywhere without much trouble 
by digging a well. The two Haw Creeks are indeed not large 
streams, yet they drive a sawmill. This is a mile from Gosh- 
en ; and besides the mills on the Flatrock are near at hand. 
Every rain, however, causes them to rise in an unconceivable 
manner. In wet weather the mud on the rich, black ground 
is indescribable, especially where on a level surface, such as 
near the schoolhouse, the water cannot flow off. 

Columbus, which is not over ten or twelve miles distant, 
forms a most desirable market because there is much buying 
there for exportation down the Mississippi. 29 All products of 
the country can be disposed of there, hogs most advantageously 
of all, wherefore all efforts are directed toward breeding them. 



29 Columbus is actually fourteen miles from Hope. At that time 
and until the advent of the Madison and Indianapolis Railroad, it was 
a shipping point of considerable importance in the flatboat trade with 
Arkansas and New Orleans. Its location on the Driftwood Fork of 
White River afforded the use of the spring freshets in this trade. 



Von Schweinitz Journey 1831 243 

On the other hand, the inhabitants are obliged to go to Co- 
lumbus, also, for all their necessities, even for the smallest 
nail. Nothing, therefore, would be more desirable for the 
settlement than the establishment of a little store or trading 
post in Goshen which would save them this trouble. Nor is 
there any doubt that an energetic young man who would be 
willing to put up with the privations inseparably connected 
with beginning in such a wilderness, would have good pros- 
pects for the future. This would particularly be the case with 
a blacksmith. Nothing would be more welcome to the breth- 
ren and their neighbors here than to see Goshen becoming a 
little town with the most necessary artisans at hand; this has 
been Brother Martin's design. For the present, however, it 
is not expected that much increase will come from other than 
Carolinian congregations, who can more easily reconcile them- 
selves to life in the woods. 

Brother Martin cannot attain his great desire to arrange 
the leases in Goshen in such manner that, as in community 
settlements, no stranger can intrude or maintain himself as 
long as there are lacking funds from which to buy up the im- 
provements in such cases. In view of the real difficulties in- 
volved, it seems to me advisable also to aim at this. After 
much deliberation the lease granted to Brother Proske was 
fixed at five years, after which term the proprietor is at lib- 
erty to renew it, change it, or, if no agreement is reached, he 
reserves for himself the right of purchasing the improvements 
on the lot, without being compelled to do so. Apart from 
such leases of house lots, the present custom of the country 
offers only one way for the use of land in the interest of 
the community, namely, gradually to grant parts of it 
on improving leases, that is, to let them to a farmer for seven 
years for his individual use, on condition that a certain num- 
ber of acres are cultivated and fenced in. Its value increases 
thereby and after this period it may be decided what further 
use is to be made of it. For the present there cannot possibly 
arise any revenue from it. They all do this; as, for example, 



244 Von Schweinitz Journey 1831 

Martin Hauser, who posseses more land than he and his 
family can use for the present. Several of the brethren who 
have settled here are such tenants and hope to earn so much 
beyond their living expenses in those years, that they can then 
buy land for themselves. 

The sixteenth or school section of each township is treated 
in the same way, only usually they aim to sell the land after 
one or more leases according to circumstances, when it has 
risen considerably in value through cultivation, and with the 
proceeds to establish a fund, the interest from which is to 
support the primary school system. The school land may be 
sold as soon as a majority of the voters of the township de- 
cides to do so. This condition had created the bitter feeling 
here in Haw Creek, which during our stay had such a sad out- 
come, and brought the murder related below into connection 
with the affairs of the brethren. 

A certain man by the name of Jones, a very coarse and 
bad character, is, with several others, a tenant on the school 
land and his lease has still five years to run. 30 This man de- 
vised a plan this spring to persuade the inhabitants to put 
the school land upon the market at once ; those concerned 
hoped to be able to buy the plantations they had started on it 
for a trifle. Since possession could only be obtained after five 
years, no purchasers would be found. Brother Martin Häuser 
and Daniel Ziegler opposed this scheme because it was mani- 
festly to the very great disadvantage of the township. One 
of the magistrates, Mr. Ray, sided with them and of course 
all the brethren here followed his example. Jones then sought 
to arouse enmity against all Moravians in order to accomplish 
his purpose. Among other things he circulated the rumor that 



30 John Jones had a better reputation among his associates and 
many others than von Schweinitz' references would indicate. He had 
settled near the present site of Hope in 1824 and, with his brother, for 
several years followed a business of driving horses to North Carolina. 
He had six children and was generally regarded as taking excellent 
care of them. His descendants have always been highly regarded in 
the community. Among those who knew him, his killing of Squire Ray 
was attributed to intoxication and a violent altercation. See note, p. 253. 



Von Schweinitz Journey 1831 245 

I was expected with $60,000 with which to buy whole counties 
and to put the control of the state into the hands of the Mo- 
ravians, insinuating also that these men then intended to sur- 
render the country to the King of England. Largely through 
the sensible representations of Squire Ray, however, all of 
this was in vain, and the selfish design of Jones and his gang 
was frustrated. Our brethren in this matter wisely avoided all 
occasions of quarrels and brawls, which are the usual way of 
venting bad feelings in this country. So this rowdy developed 
a devilish malignity especially against Squire Ray, although he 
also uttered threats at Martin and Dan. Ziegler. The unfor- 
tunate result will be detailed in due time. 

From all that has been said about the situation here, it 
must be clear that conditions are very inviting and advanta- 
geous indeed for the settlement of farmers, particularly from 
Carolina, where settlers are accustomed to similar conditions 
but with incomparably worse prospects ; and that furthermore 
certain kinds of indispensable artisans who can reconcile them- 
selves to such life in the wilderness have good prospects. It 
would be quite a different thing, however, for young men from 
our Pennsylvania communities, and probably very few could 
easily satisfy themselves with conditions here, particularly on 
account of their wives. 

After this survey I return to our stay here. On Friday, 
the 3rd, we had a disagreeable rainy day which did not allow 
us to go out until evening. After crossing, on a sixty- foot log, 
the little Haw Creek, which flows close by the house, we made 
our first visit with Martin to Goshen, or rather to the school- 
house, about half a mile from Hauser's. Only with difficulty 
was it possible to get there by the footpath through the deep 
mud. On the flat ridges, especially, the water stands very 
long after a rain. The schoolhouse is a respectable log house 
with a good shingle roof, but still without windows, for it 
is quite open everywhere ; that is, the three or four inch inter- 
stices between the logs have not yet been chinked up and daubed. 



246 Von Schweinitz Journey 1831 

As usual it has foundation pillars of large pieces of soft lime- 
stone, but as yet only under the corners. 

Several of the brethren living near paid us visits this day 
and the next. Our further proceedings were soon agreed up- 
on with Brother Martin Häuser. The time of my arrival be- 
ing uncertain, and in view of the great desire of those living 
both near and far to hear a Moravian preacher, it had been 
announced that Sunday, June 12th, there would be preaching 
at the schoolhouse. However, this need not prevent my 
preaching also on the previous Sunday, the 5th, when in ad- 
dition to members the nearer neighbors were expected to 
come. The weather being fine, they did indeed attend in large 
numbers. 

As is well known, Brother Martin Haüser was given a 
written commission from Salem to take care of the brethren 
gathering here as an adviser ; and he also at times holds prayer 
meetings and gives short exhortations. With others, especially 
with dear young Brother John Essig, he first established a 
Sunday school at the schoolhouse in co-operation with the 
Sunday school Union. The children of the whole neighbor- 
hood and of all denominations attend this in large numbers, 
and on this day, that is the 5th, they were present, soon after 
nine o'clock, together with most of the brethren and sisters. 

In the open building which, as remarked above, could still 
do quite well without windows, there is a chair, a little table, 
and instead of benches, which were not yet done, boards were 
laid upon blocks. We opened the meeting with the German 
verse: "So weit hast du uns bracht, Lamm sei gepriesen," 31 
which Brother Martin Hauser intoned with great warmth of 
heart. (It is customary to sing a German hymn, but all other 
proceedings are in the English language.) Then I made a 
short address to the brothers and sisters, conveying the cordial 
sympathy and greetings of the Provincial Conference, and 
imploring the Savior's gracious acceptance of our undertakings. 
Thereupon Brother Martin spoke briefly and cordially to the 



31 "So far hast thou brought us, Praised be the Lamb." 



Von Schweinitz Journey 1831 247 

numerous Sunday school scholars, and then knelt in prayer. 
After this we listened with the greatest pleasure to the chil- 
dren's reading, in which many have really attained great pro- 
ficiency, and heard them recite with great spontaneity the por- 
tions of Scripture assigned to them the last time, together 
with as many verses of hymns as they wished to learn. 

The impression which we received of the untold usefulness 
of these Sunday schools, for which great efforts are rightly 
being made in these otherwise neglected parts, was very fa- 
vorable. The Sunday School Union agency provides that ev- 
erywhere the necessary books can be had at lowest possible 
price, and though in part the forms of catechetical instruction 
it sends out are very imperfect, yet the great good they are 
doing cannot be denied. The whole Sunday school system is, 
in fact, a modification of the instruction of children in the 
Lutheran Church, adapted to the country and its needs, with 
the important improvement that the personal activity of the 
members of the congregation who serve as teachers makes an 
advantageous impression and thus contributes not a little to 
arouse the interest of the adults. To be sure, the Sunday 
schools do not make other schools unnecessary, and the breth- 
ren wish very much that an opportunity for the further in- 
struction of their children may soon be given them. 

I omitted to say that the roll of scholars and teachers is 
always called at the beginning and everyone present responds 
to his name. At the end I made a brief address to the chil- 
dren, calling attention to their good fortune in having such an 
opportunity to learn the word of salvation and to appropriate 
it for their own use. 

The meeting now broke up for a short while, but in the 
meantime a fairly large crowd of people had assembled, so 
I soon proceeded to the sermon in the manner customary 
among the brethren, with the singing of a hymn and opening 
prayer. The house was completely filled. Among those pres- 
ent were Squire Ray and his future murderer, who, however, 
as a notorious scoffer at religion, soon went out with a mate 



248 Von Schweinitz Journey 1831 

and was said to have made coarse jokes about the meeting in 
front of the house. The crowd was so great, indeed, that 
soon after the beginning of the sermon proper, the principal 
corner stone burst in two pieces from the weight of the people, 
with a report like a cannon shot, and frightened me not a 
little; but no further damage was done. I preached on the 
Epistle of the day: "God is love," but at the beginning I felt 
that I did not succeed in finding the right language that all 
could understand. Yet all seemed quite pleased and rejoiced. 

Monday and Tuesday were two very hot days, but we 
used them to visit all our brethren and sisters in their homes 
and to acquaint ourselves with them and their young families, 
mostly very large. The first day we proceeded in a westerly 
and the second, in an easterly direction. All the older persons 
of the congregation were personally well known to me from 
Salem days, as well as other neighbors whom we visited, who 
belong to the Baptists or Lutherans — the latter, however, have 
no congregation. Our Monday walking was very fatiguing for 
me on account of the frequent fence climbing, but no house 
can be approached without it. Nevertheless we walked seven 
miles in all, for there is at least half a mile of woods between 
every neighbor. Everywhere we were received with the great- 
est love and joy, and refreshments were offered to us. Every- 
where we had occasion to admire their industry and frugality. 
The most urgent necessities of life, but only these, are pro- 
vided everywhere. A mother with three little children, the 
oldest of whom is four years old, who stays in her cabin in 
the woods all alone, while her husband is engaged in the 
heavy tasks of clearing up the forest, is truly admirable in 
her activity in running her household, simple as it is. She 
can quickly get ready a cup of coffee — with exquisite maple 
sugar, the only kind which is seen here — together with corn- 
bread and fried ham or venison. On Tuesday we did not have 
to walk quite so far, since some of the plantations toward the 
east, such as Brother Clayton's and Alexander Copeland's, who 
have moved here from the Cherokee country only this spring, 



Von Schweinitz Journey 1831 249 

are situated somewhat more closely together. The cordiality 
and joy of the brethren and sisters were exceedingly gratify- 
ing, and even as early as this visit, several who had a desire to 
partake in the Lord's Supper announced for the festival of 
the 17th, reported for confirmation, as they had all previously 
said they would to Brother Martin. Henry Holders also 
begged very hard for permission to join the congregation. She 
was formerly a communicant sister in Carolina, but had for- 
feited her privilege. 

Most of the men were still making the utmost efforts to 
get their most recently cleared pieces [of land] into shape, 
so that they could plant corn on them, in spite of the late 
season. Even Brother Martin did not get this done till four 
days before our departure, and yet on the morning we left 
we noticed that it had already come up beautifully. As soon 
as it does, another trouble commences, for the numerous squir- 
rels pull up whole rows and nibble off the seeds. Thus it 
becomes necessary to keep shooting all day long around the 
fields. Besides this, on Monday night, all the young men 
were summoned for a wolf hunt, because packs of wolves 
were around howling during the nights. They failed, however, 
in their object, which had been to discover the lair where they 
kept their young. 

Thursday, the 9th, all the brethren were busy about the 
schoolhouse the whole day, sawing, making the two neces- 
sary windows, filling the cracks between the logs with stones, 
and plastering them up with lime-mortar from without and 
within. They achieved this with the exception of the north 
side, where the Liturgus 32 sits, which must still remain open 
for the present. 

From time to time we received calls from brethren and 
sisters and other neighbors. Among others, the repeatedly- 
mentioned Squire Ray spent the greatest part of an afternoon 
with us in a very friendly way. He introduced all possible 
topics of conversation, particularly religious questions, such as 



32 The minister. 



250 Von Schweinitz Journey 1831 

occupy the minds of the good people, about immersion in 
baptism, about reprobation, and sophistical interpretations of 
some verses of the Bible in which they exercise their clever- 
ness in debating. He was especially troubled about the ques- 
tion of the day of the week on which the Savior had been cruci- 
fied, and was confused by the universal custom of calling Sun- 
day the Sabbath; he even accused the Jews of having moved 
their Sabbath back one day out of spite toward the Christians. 
The information I tried to give him on everything seemed quite 
satisfactory to him and he took leave with the urgent request 
that we should call on him at his house, a mile and a half 
distant, after his return from Columbus where he was about 
to go on business in company with others. He took a letter 
for Brother Eugene Frueauf to the post-office. It will give 
some idea of the mode of life of such people, when I mention 
that this man told us he had commenced nine new places in 
the woods during the last twelve years, which he had always 
sold again at once to others at a profit. In the same way he 
had recently disposed of his present place, on which he had 
constructed a sort of sawmill, to Brother Charles Spach, re- 
ceiving $600 for it, and he was now contemplating settling in 
the prairies on the Wabash. 

In spite of all these conversations and as many little bo- 
tanical excursions as circumstances permitted and many very 
pleasant and gratifying talks with Brother Häuser, time 
often passed slowly, for there was no chance to write and to 
read. From time to time the weather also shut us up in the 
house and the mud was almost impassable afterwards for at 
least a day. 

Especially disagreeable was a violent rain on Saturday, 
the 11th, because word had been sent to all the brethren to 
assemble about four o'clock in the afternoon in the school- 
house for a thorough discussion of the affairs of the congre- 
gation. Fortunately the rain ceased after dinner and we ex- 
perienced the pleasure of having all appear on time except 
one who could not get away from home. This resulted in a 



Von Schweinitz Journey 1831 251 

regular church council, the first one, which on account of the 
truly brotherly and loving spirit that seemed to animate all, 
gave me the keenest pleasure in every respect. I explained 
to them, as well as I could, what the chief thing with a Mo- 
ravian congregation was, admonished them to be mindful of 
the experience of our little church over one hundred years 
ago on August 13th, and to set aside all troublesome contro- 
versies. However, I can attest with pleasure that they show 
no inclination at all to enter into such controversies, although 
much of the religious life and interest around them seem prin- 
cipally to consist in this. I called their attention to the char- 
acter they must exhibit in word and conduct as successors of 
Christ, in order to approve themselves in their surroundings 
as a congregation belonging to Him, and gave them the as- 
surance that everything which our limited resources permit- 
ted would be done for them by the Provincial Helpers' Con- 
ference, which was taking the most gratifying interest in this 
rising little congregation. 

It is plain enough to them that in view of their still small 
number and the condition in which nearly all of them will 
be for the next few years, it is not yet possible for them 
to get a pastor of their own. Therefore, they ask all the 
more that, at least once a year, preferably at this season, a 
brother who can administer the holy sacraments may visit 
them, for instance, from Gnadenhutten, which might be done 
without great cost. They hope that if they should find an 
able brother who would be willing to earn a considerable part 
of his living by teaching school and be willing to put up 
with the privations of pioneer life, it need not be so very 
long until they could be provided with one of their own. In 
the meantime they are well satisfied with the service of 
Brother Häuser, who seems to possess their confidence and 
affection in a high degree. At his suggestion, they all agreed 
to the proposition to choose two brethren to help him — the 
election to be held annually at the festival — who for the pres- 
ent with him should form a committee and with whom he 



252 Von Schweinitz Journey 1831 

should first take counsel about everything to be undertaken, 
principally about the reception of new members in the little 
band. There is good prospect of additions among several 
neighbors from Carolina, and a number of new brethren and 
sisters expected from Carolina this fall, part of whom have 
already purchased land. I promised them, as a guide for their 
future rules, a copy of those of New York and Philadelphia, 
and they all gave their consent to the rules, well known to 
them from the Carolinian congregations. In conclusion a 
number of agreements were made as to how the common 
obligations and labors could most appropriately be regulated. 
The candor, frankness, and interest with which every one 
present took part in these deliberations could not have been 
more gratifying. I was especially pleased with some sensible 
young, unmarried people, particularly Brother William Chit- 
ty, Martin Hauser's brother-in-law. Feeling exceedingly 
happy, we betook ourselves home in the evening. 

On the following day a large crowd was expected to come 
to the sermon, even from Columbus, since curiosity had be- 
come very great and, among other follies, the rumor had 
spread that I had all the instrumental music of the Moravians 
with me which would perform on that occasion. Yet it was 
decreed otherwise. For during the night there came a fear- 
ful rain, which turned toward daybreak into an unusually vio- 
lent thunderstorm, causing the creeks to rise extraordinarily 
and covering everything with water and mud — and not only 
that, but soon after four o'clock we were called out of our 
sleep by messengers arriving before our house and were hor- 
rified by the news that last night, on the ride homeward from 
Columbus, in the midst of an apparently friendly conversa- 
tion, Squire Ray had suddenly been stabbed through the 
heart by the Jones mentioned above, who thus sought to sat- 
isfy his revenge. The Squire dropped dead from his horse 
in the presence of other persons. This was later confirmed 



Von Schweinitz Journey 1831 253 

and, as may easily be understood, caused no little disturbance 
and excitement in the whole region. 33 

The sermon had first been announced, as usual, for noon, 
but I had little hope that it would come to pass at all, as it 
continued to rain fearfully until nine o'clock. Since it cleared 
up later on, however, and became quite fair, we betook our- 
selves through the unfathomable wetness and crossed the long 
log, not without anxiety on account of the terribly swollen 
Haw Creek. In due time we reached the schoolhouse, where 
there was gathered quite a goodly number of men from the 
neighborhood, although of course no women came. Those 
living further away, however, were prevented from coming 
by the weather and the murder. There was of course no 
Sunday school. Though their minds were pretty much oc- 
cupied with the occurrence of the night, they listened with 
encouraging attention and devotion to my sermon on ' 'Other 
foundation can no man lay than that which is laid," etc., a 
discourse which seemed to engage their interest in an unusual 
manner. So Brother Häuser and other brethren besought me 
to preach again on the same text when, according to my prom- 



33 The altercation in which Ray was stabbed to his death with a 
clasp knife by Jones occurred on June n, 183 1, about one mile north 
of Columbus (now near Nineteenth Street). The murderer immedi- 
ately escaped and Ray's friends made prompt pursuit, following him 
to Chesterfield in Madison County. His capture was easily effected. 
Jones was brought to the Columbus jail and indicted for murder by 
the Grand Jury at the September term, 183 1. The jury rendered a 
verdict of guilty, and the prisoner was sentenced to be executed on Oc- 
tober 31, 1 83 1. The defense moved for a new trial on an appeal to 
the Supreme Court where the case was reversed. At his second trial 
during the March term, 1832, Jones again received a verdict of guilty, 
and the execution was fixed for April 20, 1832. A respite was granted 
by the Supreme Court to give it time to pass on certain exceptions, 
and the defendant was remanded for the third trial. In the mean- 
time the sheriff, John F. Jones, had resigned his office for the reputed 
reason that he did not want to attend to the execution of his namesake, 
and a new sheriff, John McKinney, was appointed. Considerable delay 
occurred before the third trial. On account of the insecurity of the 
jail the prisoner was removed at different times to the adjoining counties 
of Jennings, Monroe, and Johnson. The result of the third trial during 
the September term, 1833, was only a repetition of the two prior ver- 
dicts of guilty, and the court condemned him to be hanged on Friday, 
October 11, 1833. Pence, George, History of Bartholomew Coun- 
ty (still in manuscript form). 



254 Von Schweinitz Journey 1831 

ise, I had to make an address on my way back at Jacob Hau- 
ser's to the people around there. 

A man who was distinguished from the remainder of the 
audience by his outward appearance, and who had come on 
horseback, had attracted my notice the entire time. He had 
lain down on the sisters' side, which was empty. When the 
closing hymn was ended, during the benediction he placed 
himself in the door and made himself known as the deputy 
sheriff. He summoned all the younger men of the audience, 
one by one, as they passed out, and ordered them with their 
guns to surround the hiding places of the murderer at once, 
and to pursue him. I will add here that not until the next Sun- 
day, when I was preaching at Jacob Hauser's, was the unfor- 
tunate man brought back as a prisoner to Columbus. He had 
fled as far as the Indian country, but had been pursued with 
great zeal, especially by the brothers of the murdered man. 

Monday, the 13th, we took dinner at Brother and Sister 
Clayton's, whence we went to Copeland's, because Sister Cope- 
land, nee Polly Gambold, had been confined during the night 
before Sunday. At their house, with a strong sense of the 
overshadowing peace of God, in the presence of several of 
the brethren and sisters, I baptized the new-born child into 
the death of Jesus. 

On the afternoon of the 15th, the brethren and sisters who 
wished to be confirmed for the Lord's Supper assembled at 
Martin Hauser's : namely, Daniel Ziegler, father of a large 
family of dear young daughters, and his wife; Lewis Ried, 
whose wife does not belong to our church, and who has sev- 
eral grown sons ; and young Brother John Essig, who is 
married. With heartfelt sympathy I explained briefly to them 
the main contents of the gospel truth and, more fully, every- 
thing relating to the partaking of the Lord's Supper. I had 
the pleasure of their undivided attention and the manifest emo- 
tion of their hearts during the almost two-hour exposition. 

We gladly complied with the desire of the aged and es- 
timable Friedrich Rothrock to permit him and his wife to 



Von Schweinitz Journey 1831 255 

celebrate the festival and the Lord's Supper with us, for 
which purpose they had travelled here and paid us a long 
visit on the 16th. He is living about twelve miles from here 
and belonged to the Lutheran Church of Brother Schober in 
Carolina. Our anxiety that a concourse of other strangers 
might molest us at our festival fortunately proved unfounded, 
although we had agreed, in order to avoid suspicion and evil 
report, not to turn away any respectable person. 

Thus approached the 17th of June which was to close and 
crown our stay here. Evidently all were eagerly anticipating 
the day on which it was of unusual importance that the Lord 
should grant us fine weather, since all families, even with 
small children, were obliged to spend the whole time in the 
schoolhouse and in the woods, if they wished to take due part 
in it. The Lord did indeed grant us such a fine day, and 
hearing our common prayer, He strengthened me in a con- 
spicuous manner, after I had recovered from a passing, but 
alarming attack of illness that very morning. Toward half- 
past eight o'clock, after having nailed up doors and windows, 
since it was risky to leave the house empty a whole day, all 
members of the household set out on the way to Goshen. 
At the appointed hour of nine all of the little congregation, 
young and old, with the exception of Sister Copeland and her 
new-born child, had assembled. 

I opened the proceedings of the day, conscious of the pres- 
ence of divine grace among us, with a solemn morning service 
and prayer. I expressed the grateful sentiments of the little 
congregation at the fulfillment which the Lord had already 
granted beyond all hope, of their intention here in the far 
west to join the Brethren's Unity as a Moravian congregation. 
I assured them of the blessing and sympathy of all the con- 
gregations and encouraged them for the future to set all their 
hope on the Lord, to let their call and election become fixed 
by grace, and here and now to make in His name, both in- 
dividually and as a congregation, the covenant of peace, which 
could never be taken from them. Amidst an emotional stir 



256 Von Schweinitz Journey 1831 

of all hearts, this was then done in the solemn prayer I pro- 
nounced in the name of all, and surely with the fervent con- 
sent of their hearts. I commended most warmly to His faith- 
ful heart this little western congregation in Goshen as a 
newly rising star in the crown on the head of our union. 
There was probably no one in this little forest church who 
did not feel the presence of the Savior among us and who 
could not also testify to His recognition of Goshen as a future 
congregation of His. 

For a quarter or half an hour we rested in the dark, glo- 
rious shade of the deep forest, surprisingly little troubled then 
by flies and gnats in the lovely weather of the day. Then 
all assembled for the second time in order to listen to a de- 
tailed discourse preparatory to the Lord's Supper, in which, 
at Brother Hauser's request, I repeated the main contents of 
my instruction to the candidates for confirmation who were 
sitting on a bench in front of me. After cordially addressing 
them, I asked each one of them the four questions, by answer- 
ing which they solemnly pronounced their confession of faith 
and their vows of fidelity to the Saviour, to whom they wished 
to surrender themselves anew this day, in an exceedingly 
touching manner, before the congregation and, in part, be- 
fore a considerable number of their own children. Then 1 
confirmed them with a feeling which gripped my heart in 
an extraordinary manner, and which evidently prevailed also 
in the congregation, particularly in the candidates themselves. 
It was significant to me that this was the first confirmation 
I ever had an opportunity to perform. 

It was now noon. We lay down again to rest in the for- 
est shade. In a short time the young men had collected ana 
piled up logs in the shape of an altar which soon flamed up 
cheerfully. This was used to cook the love feast with which 
the sisters occupied themselves for the present, while the 
brethren assembled once more for the election of the two com- 
mittee members, as previously decided. Almost unanimously 
the two oldest brethren were elected, Daniel Ziegler and Lewis 



Von Schweinitz Journey 1831 257 

Ried, who had just been confirmed. The former especially 
seems to enjoy the general regard, and he is called Uncle 
Daniel by everybody in the whole neighborhood. 

The white cloth with which the sisters had adorned the 
table, for which one of them had gladly lent her handsome 
shawl, was removed for a moment in order that we might 
eat our refreshing dinner, consisting of cold roast chicken. 
Until the preparations for the baptism of the children were 
completed, we then enjoyed ourselves in the forest among 
the brethren and sisters, among whom there reigned an af- 
fection, a simplicity and a joy over this day which was quite 
animating. It gave pleasure to me and to all to unexpectedly 
welcome the beloved exhorter of the Methodists in this vi- 
cinity, Lewis Rominger, with Friedrich Brendel, an old ac- 
quaintance in Carolina, who had just arrived from his home, 
some distance away — a very earnest Baptist. They could, how- 
ever, only stay until after the baptism. This now took place 
and five children were one after another offered by their 
fathers to the Lord and baptized into His death after I had 
spoken at some length on the text, "Suffer the little children 
to come unto me," etc., because, in view of the many conten- 
tions about infant baptism, it seemed needful to set forth 
distinctly the foundation of our belief and practice. 

There followed another short interval until the love feast 
was entirely ready. With truly blissful sentiments, I walked 
meanwhile up and down in the shade as far as the dense un- 
derbrush permitted, and feasted my eyes upon the most in- 
teresting sight of the activity and goodness of the souls as- 
sembled here. There were eighty- five souls belonging to the 
Moravian Church present at this love feast, and in addition, 
some non-members, wives of brethren. The one hundred cups, 
ordered in Philadelphia some time ago by Brother Martin 
through me, and an appropriate bell, had long before arrived 
safely. They created general joy. The latter was used this 
day for the first time ; it must hang under the roof, however, 
until it can be securely fastened outside. The love feast, at 



258 Von Schweinitz Journey 1831 

which we sang German and English verses and had pleasant 
and grateful talk with general participation among the breth- 
ren and sisters, was a love feast in deed and in truth. I could 
not help calling the attention of the brethren to the coincidence 
which also struck my dear Brother Eugene Frueauf, of their 
choosing the 17th of June for their congregational festival, 
in memory of the anniversary of the cutting of the first tree 
for the construction of Herrnhut, when in all my travels I 
had scarcely found a place anywhere that bore so striking a 
resemblance to the place in the woods where Christian David 
struck his axe in the first tree, as this very site of Goshen. 
The only exception was that here the trees are so much thicker 
and without the admixture of firs and pines. The brethren 
were greatly pleased at my reference to this. 

Soon the preparations for the Lord's Supper were com- 
pleted. The communicants sat in a square in front of me ; 
most of the mothers among them necessarily had their young- 
est children on their arms. All other members of the congre- 
gations beyond the age of childhood, as well as the wives who 
were not members (some of whom appeared to be strongly 
moved and affected) were permitted to look on at the Lord's 
Supper. The outward arrangements were very seemly, though 
plain, and suitable to the circumstances. It must remain un- 
written how the presence of His grace revealed itself among 
us at the first partaking of the flesh and blood of our Saviour 
in this wilderness. For me and my companion, Brother Frue- 
auf, the impression will never fade. At the close the general 
emotion and the melting of our hearts into a bond of love and 
heartfelt union with Him, to whom we vowed ourselves anew, 
was quite overwhelming. Twenty persons, including ourselves, 
partook of the Lord's Supper. Thus the celebration of this 
ever memorable day closed about four o'clock. 

After a short stay among the dear souls, we took leave 
of each one, young and old, who could not come to us again 
in the evening, as most of them desired to do, and went slowly 
home full of praise and thanks for the day the Lord had 



Von Schweinitz Journey 1831 259 

given us as we reviewed with pleasure the scenes of our more 
than two- weeks' stay. Even before our last supper at our 
kind hosts', some brethren and sisters appeared there in or- 
der to engage in kindly conversations with us. While I walked 
silently up and down before the house in the moonlight, the 
brethren and neighbors arrived in ever greater numbers. I 
noticed that the young men did not mind bringing the benches 
from Goshen almost a half mile and across the creek. I was 
then asked to hold a farewell meeting and evening services 
with the large number present, for which Martin selected for 
me a very fitting and beautiful farewell hymn which I had 
never before heard. This, the seventh discourse of the day 
— some long, some short — proved quite easy for me, and with 
prayer, kneeling, formed a beautiful conclusion of my work 
here. There followed a cordial and sorrowful farewell of all 
the dear souls, except the members of the household, and then 
a quiet rest. 

Often during this time, and particularly on this day, the 
whole work of the Lord, which is unfolding here, appeared 
to me like a fresh, thriving scion grafted from an old stem 
upon one still in the vigor of youth. This was especially true 
when I thought of many of these dear souls whom I knew 
years ago in Carolina as nearly or wholly dead branches. Truly 
the Lord has caused a mustard seed to germinate which may 
become a fine tree. May He now also present us with the 
right man to take care of this most promising work and to 
keep our dear brethren here in the quiet simplicity in which 
they evidently now live. May He continue to bestow grace 
upon Brother Martin Häuser as heretofore, that he may do 
what he can to keep the little congregation together and to 
build it up. He appears to me to be an exceedingly loyal broth- 
er, caring above everything for the service of the Lord. 

Early on the 18th, preparations for our return journey in a 
little one-horse vehicle were made. After our last breakfast 
with the dear family and a cordial parting with all the mem- 
bers of the household, we started with Brother Martin on our 



260 Von Schweinitz Journey 1831 

way to his brother Jacob's on the Flatrock River. The path 
was somewhat better and more distinct than the one on which 
we had come. As we proceeded very slowly, Brother Frueauf 
walked the entire distance, while I held a long pleasant, im- 
portant, final conversation with Brother Martin Häuser. 
Toward noon we arrived at Jacob Hauser 's, where preparations 
were made at once to announce by messengers, who were sent 
out to the ferries, etc., that I would preach the next day, for 
through a misunderstanding the earlier announcement had 
been revoked. This seemed very necessary, since on the pre- 
ceding Sunday, as related above, the preaching service could 
not be attended by many people who were eager to hear what 
the Brethren's belief is amidst the various winds of doctrine 
which roar in this wilderness. At least our brethren were 
very anxious for it and I myself thought it important in 
order to preclude, from the start, many rumors and calumnies. 

Sunday, the 19th, was a fine day, though very hot. After 
breakfast, the Häuser brothers were busy putting up a plat- 
form which was to serve as a pulpit for me in the neighbor- 
ing sugar-maple grove. Soon a suitable number of seats, or 
benches, of boards and fence rails, were also ready under the 
shade of these fine trees. By noon, the usual preaching time, 
a large crowd had arrived by carriage, on horseback, and on 
foot, from Columbus and the whole vicinity, and camped in 
the grove. With true concern of heart and fervent prayer to 
the Lord that He might give me according to His word what 
was needful, I then preached an hour and a half on the text 
already mentioned, "Other foundation [can no man lay-]." 
I particularly emphasized that in this passage the apostle 
taught [us] how to look upon differences in Christian views 
and the preference of this or that teacher or doctrine, if only 
saving faith in Jesus Crucified was the foundation. I had the 
satisfaction of being able to infer from the various utterances 
of my auditors, some of whom expressed themselves to me 
at some length, that what was said had been a word in due 



Von Schweinitz Journey 1831 261 

season and was well received. Several brethren had also 
come from Goshen whom we here again bade farewell. 

After quite a cheerful dinner and some lively talks at 
Jacob Hauser's with many of my listeners invited to stay 
according to the hospitable custom of this country, about four 
o'clock we started with Martin on our way to Columbus, and 
arrived in good time. The condition of my chest made it 
inadvisable to preach again, as I was expected to do. Here 
I had the unspeakable joy of receiving a letter from my good 
wife for the first and only time on the whole trip. We went 
over the letter carefully together. Then came the time for 
sorrowful parting with dear Martin, whom I shall never for- 
get. He returned the same evening as far as his brother's. 

[From Columbus, Indiana, to Gnadenhutten, Ohio] 
By this time the stage coach for Madison was finally run- 
ning. We left on it early on the 20th, at half past three 
o'clock in the morning, in company with a merchant of this 
place, who had already traveled with us on the steamer from 
Wheeling. The multitude of mosquitos at this early hour, 
particularly in the low places, is inconceivable. They flew 
into our eyes by thousands and could only halfway be warded 
off by great effort and by smoke. As far as Brush Creek, 
mentioned on our way here, the road was as bad as the 
dexterity of our coachman was admirable, as he guided the 
coach and four between the holes in the road, and where this 
was impossible, through the woods. From there on, the ef- 
fects of the general road repairs which had occurred mean- 
while were very noticeable. After breakfasting at Solon, we 
reached Vernon as early as eleven o'clock. As the road was 
improved still more from here on, we would have reached 
Madison in very good time in spite of a violent, but short 
thunderstorm, had not our new driver made up his mind to 
walk his horses, even on the last twelve excellent miles, out 
of resentment at reproaches he had received earlier about one 
of them which had fallen. In this he did us a very bad turn, 
for had we arrived at Madison even a half hour earlier we 



262 Von Schweinitz Journey 1831 

might have continued our journey at once on a steamer which 
was just coming up. As it was, it was nearly eight o'clock 
in the evening before we reached there. The result was a 
most tedious day at Madison, since no steamer to Cincinnati 
appeared until the evening of the 21st, except one quite early 
in the morning, of which we had not been advised. Since 
it is a long distance from the inn to the place of embarkation, 
in the afternoon we had our baggage taken to the floating 
wharf, and spent the afternoon and evening at an inn, where 
there was an opportunity to watch the steamers approaching 
from afar. Our patience was sorely tried, for it was midnight 
before a steamboat approached. We hastened to meet it. 

Since the short stop of a steamer is difficult and danger- 
ous — just recently one exploded at Wheeling on such an oc- 
casion — one is very thankful, if in this precipitate and reck- 
less rush in the night, one gets safely aboard with his things. 
We had already boarded the "Volante" and it had started on, 
when to my dismay I discovered that part of my baggage had 
been left on the dock. I succeeded in recovering it, however, 
with the aid of the small boat. I was the only one who found 
an unoccupied berth in the magnificent cabin of this large 
steamer. Brother Frueauf and some others had to be satisfied 
with beds which were made up on the cabin table. The sight 
of this crowded cabin with fifty odd occupied berths, in which 
sleeping passengers were thrown up a few inches at every 
pulse-like vibration, was quite singular. We would not have 
got much rest if we had not stopped for a few hours at 
the mouth of the Kentucky River where considerable freight 
had to be taken aboard. 

The ride from Madison to Cincinnati amounts to about 
one hundred miles, and was on the whole quite pleasant on 
the day of the 22nd, though from time to time we were both- 
ered by showers. We made an interesting acquaintance with 
a traveler who had been in Fairfield with Brother Luckenbach 
only two weeks ago, and had been truly edified by him. Be- 
sides, among the numerous passengers there were many who 



Von Schweinitz Journey 1831 263 

had just been saved from a steamer which had been wrecked 
on the Mississippi by a snag. As is customary on the large 
steamers of the western rivers, there was card playing in a 
corner of the large cabin almost all day long. Quite a few 
professional gamblers are said to spend most of their time 
on the steamers, in order to plunder the inexperienced. Such 
things, as is well known, are absolutely not tolerated on the 
northern waters ; in general, a strikingly different tone prevails 
in the whole manner and conversation of the people coming 
up from the south, particularly from New Orleans. 

In the afternoon as we approached Cincinnati, we enjoyed 
many exceedingly interesting sights, for in this region, both in 
Kentucky and in Indiana, the houses, large as well as small, 
are found more frequently on the banks than elsewhere. Rarely, 
however, did they show to good advantage on account of 
the exceedingly high bluffs on the river and the level sur- 
faces upon which most of them are situated. About five 
o'clock we landed safely at Cincinnati and for the time being 
we took leave of the western steamers, very thankful to have 
escaped unharmed, since stories of accidents thereon were 
quite frequent just then. 

In accordance with our promise to Captain Schulz of the 
cavalry, son-in-law of the rich old Mr. Brennan, we drove 
at once in a livery cab from the large Broadway Hotel, where 
we stopped, to his family's summer hotel. This was most 
beautifully located on the river about three miles upstream 
outside the city. Mr. and Mrs. Schulz, as well as old Mr. and 
Mrs. Brennan, received us with the greatest kindness and in- 
sisted on our staying a couple of days. These were spent prin- 
cipally in the city, where we took in all the sights. Cincinnati 
is decidedly the largest city in the whole west and at present 
in every respect a flourishing commercial and manufacturing 
town. It is advantageously located on a wide level stretch 
and by means of the splendid, completed Miami Canal, which 
begins at Dayton, the city enjoys the best connection with the 
richest and most fertile section of the whole state of Ohio, 



264 Von Schweinitz Journey 1831 

which lies between the Great and the Little Miami and is justly- 
called the garden spot of Ohio. In order not to be distracted, 
I delivered only the most interesting letters of introduction 
which I had with me and thereby made several very pleasant 
acquaintances. I was sorry we failed to meet Mr. Thomas 
Heckenwaelder, the present sheriff of the county, a Bethle- 
hem boy who was born in my present room. However, it 
was gratifying to learn that he had become an honorable and 
highly esteemed man. Not a few Germans are residing here, 
and among them are many demagogic agitators, professors, and 
the like. Most of the Germans are confectioners or in similar 
lines of business. Sometimes their musical talents serve as 
an attraction for their establishments. Their demagogy is 
generally considered a freak, since nobody in America can 
understand what merit there is in thinking that which every- 
body believes as a matter of course. The rapidity with which 
a magnificent city of 30,000 inhabitants, very much like Phil- 
adelphia, has grown up here, at an immense distance from the 
sea, causes just amazement. I can still well remember the 
time when this city existed only in design and when the name 
proposed and adopted for it gave perhaps not an unjust of- 
fense to my boyish wisdom as the nominative plural of a mas- 
culine name. 

On the morning of June 25th, Mr. Schulz gave us the aid 
of his carriage in proceeding upon our journey. In fine 
weather, he drove us on a road, mostly good, to Hamilton, 
a very considerable town on the Miami River, twenty-five 
miles away, by way of Carthage where an excellent breakfast 
was served us. He drove, for the most part, near the canal, 
past his large establishment, consisting of a steam mill and a 
distillery, and through the continuously rich country, splendidly 
cultivated, where the barley harvest was just beginning. We 
stopped over night at Hamilton, and it was his intention to 
take us the next day to Dayton by way of a Shaker establish- 
ment near Miami [s] burg. However, on Sunday, June 26th, 
such a fearful and incessant rain began that we found it ad- 



Von Schweinitz Journey 1831 265 

visable to remain at Hamilton, although the rain and the re- 
sulting mud shut us up in the house and made it im- 
possible for us even to attend the remote church. Thus we 
observed Sunday only by getting bread and butter instead of 
dinner. However, it was not distinguished on the bill from 
a regular dinner. As there was little prospect of better weather 
and since in any case the roads had become very bad, we de- 
cided in the evening to continue our journey by the next day's 
stage coach and took grateful leave of Mr. Schulz. 

On the 27th, the rainy weather still continued, but cleared 
up during the forenoon. When at half past three in the 
morning we crossed the Miami bridge on the regular stage 
road and made a few miles, it became apparent from unmis- 
takable signs that the river, which must be recrossed again 
on this road, was too swollen to make fording practicable. 
We therefore had to turn back, drive through Hamilton once 
more, and try to proceed on this side upon roads which, nor- 
mally bad, were made much worse by the rain. We then trav- 
eled through Middletown where we again met our friend, Mr. 
Zehender, at breakfast; and through Franklin, Miami [s] burg, 
and Alexanderville, in all of which places many Germans 
are living, to the very notable and flourishing town of Dayton. 
Twice we forded creeks which did not seem to be large (or- 
dinarily), but at the time were swollen so much that the water 
stood several inches deep in our coach. Among our changing 
traveling companions, we had an opportunity to observe with 
astonishment how the contemporary interest in religion, so 
closely akin to that in politics, manifests itself : namely, in 
outbreaks of the pettiest disputes — which very easily become 
violent — about Arminian and Calvinistic tenets, etc. Withal it is 
astonishing how the good people can quote Scripture. A stu- 
dent of the Presbyterian Institute at Oxford absolutely wanted 
to declare an old gentleman an infidel because he believed 
that even now miracles might still happen. In short, it is 
incredible what confusion concerning religious matters is 
reigning in people's minds. From Dayton to Springfield we 



266 Von Schweinitz Journey 1831 

had a courteous and educated company which delightfully 
shortened the otherwise tedious and very bad road. In the 
vicinity of Mad River, however, it led through prairies, now 
transformed into the widest and most fertile pastures. As is 
well known, the western prairies, whose great stretches, how- 
ever, begin still further west in the state of Illinois, are im- 
mense, treeless, grassgrown, and in part very fertile plains. 
I had not seen any before, and was delighted not a little with 
the many interesting plants I observed here. 

Further on we met with an accident. The main pole bolt 
of the coach suddenly broke off in a deep mud hole into 
which the coach sank. We could alight without difficulty, 
however. While some of the passengers stayed with the 
coach and baggage until a new pole bolt could be procured 
from the next place, others of us walked slowly a few miles 
ahead, as well as we could in the mud. My companion was 
the candidate for the Assembly, who was endeavoring to make 
friends for the next election, and for that purpose he called 
at the houses here and there. Finally, we came to a stop 
and were regaled with refreshing milk. Here we awaited the 
arrival of the coach and now had to ride very slowly in the 
darkness until ten o'clock before we reached Springfield, the 
next station. The branch stage line, which we were on, con- 
nects here with the main line from Cincinnati. The Cincinnati 
coach had not yet arrived because it had had the misfortune 
of losing a horse in the deep water ; thus, after a light supper, 
we had the advantage of a refreshing rest of an hour and a 
half on a cot. 

Soon after the 28th of June had begun, however, we were 
on the road again and had to cover about thirty-six miles in 
fog and dampness on a corduroy road, which for the most 
part is very bad.. We did not pass through any town, but 
through botanically curious plains or half -prairies, as they 
are called, remarkable from a botanical point of view, which 
when it grew daylight greatly engaged my attention. Besides 
some very badly swollen creeks had to be forded. After a 



Von Schweinitz Journey 1831 267 

poor breakfast we approached Columbus, the capital of the 
state of Ohio, on the Scioto, where there was again extraor- 
dinarily fertile and well-cultivated land. This town is already- 
very important because it is the seat of government. We should 
have liked to have got something to eat at the magnificent 
hotel where we stopped at noontide; but before it was ready, 
we had to obey the call to the coach again, as terribly black 
thunderclouds were gathering. After a long roundabout way, 
just when we were crossing a greatly swollen stream with 
much difficulty, the storm burst with such a downpour as I 
have rarely seen. Fortunately it did not last long ; on the long, 
tedious further ride we only had to suffer from the corduroy 
road which had become still worse from the rain and from 
hunger which was at last tolerably appeased at a miserable 
hovel about four o'clock. Toward evening we got unexpect- 
edly on a good road again at the nice little town of Granville 
on the Licking River, and into a beautiful region which, how- 
ever, was soon concealed by darkness. Soon after nine o'clock, 
however, we safely arrived at the destination of this our 166- 
mile coach journey, the town of Newark, on that part of the 
great Ohio Canal which has already been completed. Here 
we could rest again in excellent beds after a ride of forty- 
one hours. It seemed encouraging for the complete restora- 
tion of my health that I could withstand such a trip with so 
little fatigue. 

We had to remain, in delightful weather, at Newark all 
day long on the 29th, because no comfortable canal boat, such 
as we wished, left in the direction of Gnadenhuetten, fifty 
odd miles distant, till the 30th, at about nine o'clock. These 
canal boats, four of which usually come and go daily, are very 
spacious, and at present those going to Lake Erie are heavily 
loaded with flour for the New York market. At their prow 
they are provided with very comfortable and usually beauti- 
fully decorated cabins, in which ten or twelve passengers find 
respectable accommodations and good board at two and a half 
cents a mile. They are drawn by two horses and, including 



268 Von Schweinitz Journey 1831 

the stops at the numerous locks, make about three or four 
miles an hour. 

The first day's ride through country which in parts was 
very fertile was very pleasant. Once we passed a magnificent 
cornfield of 150 acres — an acre often yields one hundred 
bushels. In the afternoon the canal descended into the bed 
of the Licking River, where there are very romantic banks 
for about six miles, and some coniferous trees, the only ones 
we noticed in the West. Before dark, we reached the two- 
mile branch canal which leads to Dresden, a town of some 
size on the Muskingum, and soon afterwards we rode along 
the side of this river. As far as the Licking, our ride through 
the locks was descending. From there on, where we left its 
bed again, the canal is fed by the water of the Tuscarawas, 
which we usually incorrectly call the Muskingum. The river 
receives this name only after its juncture with the Walhonding 
at Coshocton. Consequently one ascends through the locks 
toward Gnadenhuetten. At present this enterprise, the benefit 
and usefulness of which for this section of the country is 
quite obvious, is only completed and in operation from Cleve- 
land on Lake Erie to Hebron, eight miles below Newark. In 
the course of this year, the canal will, in all probability, be 
completed as far as Chillicothe and in the next, reach the Ohio. 
An immeasurable tract of the most fertile country, which up 
to the present has had no sale for its products, will thereby 
immediately obtain a desirable market. Even now the results 
everywhere manifested are incredible. The condition of the 
inhabitants about Gnadenhuetten, particularly, has greatly 
changed for the better this last year, and it now only takes 
industry to make a secure livelihood, even though such ex- 
travagant prices as have been obtained for wheat this year — 
almost as much as at Bethlehem — cannot last. At fifty cents 
a bushel, however, these productive fields can be tilled at not 
a little profit. 

During the night, while we were resting in comfortable 
berths, we passed, without being aware of it, the great acque- 



Von Schweinitz Journey 1831 269 

duct which carries the canal over the Walhonding at Coshoc- 
ton, the former Gosachguenk of missionary history. On the 
morning of July 1st, the pleasure of our ride was oftentimes 
curtailed by showers ; yet we could be on deck most of the 
time. We now passed the insignificant [village of] New 
Comerstown and came to the former Society land, and for 
the first time to regions where I had been before. A new lit- 
tle town on the canal, Salebury, is arising on the former Salem 
or lower tract. From there on, I partly remembered the sur- 
roundings. We were told that the lock where one lands for 
Gnadenhuetten was a mile and a half from the town; this 
is certainly a great handicap for the use of the canal, because 
the Tuscarawas River flows between the community and the 
landing place and cuts it off from the canal. Nevertheless, 
Brothers Demuth and Wuensch have built a storehouse at the 
lock, and Brother Huber, who emigrated from Switzerland 
some years ago, has built a cigar manufactory. 

[The Moravian Settlement at Gnadenhuetten, Ohio] 
I was somewhat at a loss as to how we should get to 
Gnadenhuetten with our baggage and quite uncertain as to 
whether or not we were expected. It was therefore the more 
gratifying to learn at Brother Huber 's that it was taken for 
granted that we would arrive this very day and that our com- 
ing would cause great rejoicing. We stopped at his house 
with our baggage, and he hastened over the river — it was 
about noon — to tell of our arrival to Sam Huebner, who in- 
tended to fetch us over the river with his one-horse vehicle. 
In a little while he himself came across and welcomed us 
most heartily ; he came on foot, however, because the river was 
too high to ford and there was no other ferry than a small 
bateau. 34 Since the rain had ceased, we were glad to go 
with him on foot — our baggage being sent after us — to Gnad- 
enhuetten, where eight years ago I spent four interesting 
weeks at the time of our negotiation with Governor Cass, 



34 A bateau was a small flat-bottomed boat. 



270 Von Schweinitz Journey 1831 

which produced such beneficent results for the Society for 
the Heathen, for our Indians, and especially for this whole 
region. For without personal observation nobody can fully 
comprehend the disadvantage which a large unsaleable tract 
of good land — such as the 12,000 acres which belongs to the 
Society — carries with it out in this western country. This 
is due to the poor population which is attracted by merely 
leaseable land, and to the inevitable obstacles in the way of 
all improvements on unsaleable territory. Only the most un- 
limited, free power of disposal of landed property is consistent 
with the kind of prosperity demanded by these regions. It 
should not be wondered at, therefore, that all reservations of 
this kind are everywhere viewed askance in the vicinity. This 
is the case, also, with our Erie land, where, however, there is 
fortunately no legal obstacle to prevent changing the conditions 
as soon as we wish. 

It is quite comprehensible, indeed, why, during the nine- 
ties, people acted just as they did in regard to the so-called 
Muskingum Society land, when no experience could give en- 
lightenment on all these matters. Now it is known that noth- 
ing more certainly foredoomed to failure could have been 
tried. Now there is no one, at least no one who knows the 
nature of the new states, who could commit the formerly 
widespread folly of investing capital in uncultivated land, 
be it ever so fertile, which is allowed to lie uncultivated in 
the expectation that the increased price after thirty years or 
more would yield rich compensation and profit. Among 
others, it cost the late Brother Cunow almost his entire for- 
tune. The price does not rise at all perceptibly without cul- 
tivation, for even in spite of the present good prospects on 
account of the canal, no more can be obtained than thirty 
years ago for wild land, no matter how good, while a properly 
improved plantation has a sixfold value. The great cost of 
cultivation, the worthlessness of the wood, and the quantity of 
wild land still inexhaustible for a long time to come furnish 
a sufficient explanation. 



Von Schweinitz Journey 1831 271 

However, I return to our arrrival at Gnadenhuetten, where 
we were taken in the bateau by the youngest son of David 
Peter, an excellent old friend whom we greeted in passing. 
We got the kindest and most hospitable reception from our 
dear Brother and Sister Huebner in their pretty, new, up-to- 
date house, for which the former one-story cabin-like structure, 
in which I once spent four weeks at Rauschenberger's, now 
serves as a kitchen. The rest of the little town also, though 
small and containing, apart from the quite appropriate church, 
only ten or twelve houses in all, has gained much in appear- 
ance by Demuth's well-appointed inn and the still uncompleted, 
two-story brick house of Brother David Peter. 

On account of the rareness of a visit and the general re- 
joicing of the brethren, I realized at once that I must spend 
two Sundays in these parts in order to preach at 
Sharon and in order to do as much visiting here 
as was feasible. This was partly the reason that I was in- 
duced to abandon my intention of going on the canal to Lake 
Erie and thence by way of Niagara into the New York canal, 
for it threatened to take too much time and money. To be 
sure, it would not have taken much longer time for the jour- 
ney itself, although it would have been more than twice as 
far as by way of Pittsburgh, but a considerably longer stay 
at several places would have been unavoidable. 

As early as July 2nd, we had the pleasure of receiving a 
very agreeable visit from Brother Jacob Blickensdoerfer, of 
Dover, a man as sensible and esteemed as any in the whole 
state, and a worthy member of the Sharon committee, with 
whom I have been in friendly relations for some time. He 
stayed all day with us and accompanied us to Sharon on Sun- 
day, the third. As is well known, it is scarcely possible to 
drive here a couple of miles without having to cross the river. 
This day, however, we could ford it quite well with Brother 
Huebner's one-horse vehicle. As it was fine weather, a very 
large congregation had assembled about the little church, and 
I greeted with pleasure the members whom I knew. In a short 



272 Von Schweinitz Journey 1831 

address to the congregation I conveyed to them the heartiest 
greetings of the Provincial Helpers' Conference, and told 
them something of my visit in Indiana and of the rising little 
congregation there in order to enlist their sympathy for it. 
I then preached in the German language with heartfelt sin- 
cerity. We dined at noon at John Blickensdoerfer's and spent 
a very pleasant afternoon there, in the company of many 
brethren. After several other short visits we drove back to 
Gnadenhuetten toward evening. 

During a great part of the following week, our enjoyment 
was rather curtailed by continuous, and in part heavy, rains. 
Besides, first Brother Frueauf and then I myself was some- 
what afflicted with diarrhoea and nausea, which soon abated, 
however. On Thursday, in spite of the bad weather, Brother 
Frueauf rode, by way of the old mission place of Goshen, 
where he visited the grave of the late Brother Zeisberger, to 
Dover to Brother Jacob Blickensdoerfer's. This mission house 
was burnt a short while ago through the negligence of the 
wretched Teichmann, of Christiansfeld, to whom it had just 
been sold. Unfortunately the rain and my ailment frustrated 
our driving there together and thence to Zoar to visit the 
remarkable and very flourishing settlement, under the leader- 
ship of Baeumler, of the Wuerttembergers, who have an in- 
stitutional organization. Brother Frueauf, however, together 
with Blickensdoerfer, paid a visit there to Baeumler's great 
delight, as I had done eight years ago. Besides taking as 
many botanical walks with Brother Huebner as the weather 
permitted, I called meanwhile at the homes of all the Gnaden- 
huetten brethren. I also had a long business call from Brother 
Boas Walton, my agent, on the matter of the mission land 
and the Cunow property of which I am executor. The meas- 
ures taken, thank God, have been successful so far, so that 
this whole matter is being settled and almost half the fortune 
invested will be saved for Brother Cunow's widow after all. 
I was also so fortunate as to sell a good piece of the mission 
land again. 



Von Schweinitz Journey 1831 273 

Saturday afternoon Brother Frueauf came back. The 
weather finally cleared up to the delight of everybody, since 
the rain threatened to endanger the fine crops. However, it 
grew extraordinarily cold for the season. However, the 
weather was favorable for an exceedingly large attendance 
at the Sunday sermon at Gnadenhuetten on July 10th, when 
I first conveyed cordial greetings to this congregation, also. 
I then opened my heart to them on the text, "Little children 
abide in Him," 35 with a feeling that I should . . . . 36 probably 
never preach to them again. After a hasty dinner we went 
to Dover with Brother and Sister Huebner and their entire 
family, and Sister Peter, who were invited with us to Blickens- 
doerfer's. We were accompanied by most of the inhabitants 
of Gnadenhuetten, young and old, across the river to the 
lock where we intended to await a boat going up the canal. 

[From Gnadenhuetten to Bethlehem] 
In this large and happy company, our almost endless wait 
did not become irksome. A descending boat, loaded with 
ninety German emigrants, passed by and gave much pleasure to 
the young folks of Gnadenhuetten who rode a short distance on 
it. We were surprised to hear from the emigrants that this 
was only the eighth Sunday since their departure from Europe ;'. 
so fast had they come across the ocean, up the North River, 37 
the New York Canal, Lake Erie, and the Ohio Canal to this 
remote region. It is indeed remarkable how much this cheap, 
inland navigation diminishes distances and promotes the set- 
tling of emigrants. When the sun was about to set, we bade 
farewell to our dear Gnadenhuetten people. After they went 
home, our company waited in vain for a boat in the penetrat- 
ing cold until after nine o'clock. 

We were just thinking of making arrangements to spend 
the night at the Hubers', good people but poor, when fortu- 
nately a boat appeared. We boarded it and found quite toler- 



» 5 I John 2:28. 
36 Text defective. 
37 Hudson River. 



274 Von Schweinitz Journey 1831 

able accommodations. In spite of the cold night, we stayed 
up to view by starlight the somewhat precarious passage 
around steep Mount Esra, just opposite Gnadenhuetten, and 
then tried to get some rest in the beds which had been made 
up meanwhile. We would have succeeded, if from time to 
time some thirty barrels of flour which were on deck had not 
been rolled to and fro the whole length of the boat above our 
heads. An inquiry revealed that this was done in order to 
float the boat, which had run aground in a shallow place. After 
a few hours the efforts were successful, and the episode had 
this advantage that we were able to spend the whole night 
aboard quietly and to arrive at Blickensdoerfers' at a suitable 
hour, instead of arriving in the middle of the night, for the 
distance was only fourteen miles. 

Brother and Sister Blickensdoerfer received us with great 
love and kindness and we spent a pleasant day with them in 
the thriving little commercial town of Dover, whose existence 
has brought the neighboring New Philadelphia, three miles 
beyond the river, to a complete standstill. We botanized a 
great deal in the wide, fertile prairies, plains overgrow with 
quite low bushes scarcely four feet high. We also received 
much important and instructive information from Brother 
Blickensdoerfer, who serves as judge and possesses an un- 
commonly extensive knowledge of the whole district. He 
carries on a considerable commission business on the canal, 
and at the same time he is chief collecter of revenue for it. 

On Tuesday, the 12th, he helped us continue our journey 
and with Brother Huebner accompanied us on our departure 
before sunrise to New Philadelphia. Here after taking friendly 
leave of them, we boarded the stage coach for Steubenville, 
which, I am sorry to say, was not as comfortable as the pre- 
ceding ones. For the first eight miles we surely yearned for 
a comfortable coach for the road was the worst and the rough- 
est yet encountered. The weather was pleasant. From Lees- 
burg, where we had breakfast, to our night's stopping place, 
Annapolis, formerly called Salem, which we reached very 



Von Schweinitz Journey 1831 275 

early, the road was better and quite pleasant. This whole 
part of the state of Ohio consists of an uninterrupted suc- 
cession of high hills, which have in part very good land, how- 
ever, and are cultivated in an amazing way. I observed with 
pleasure the increase of cultivation during the past eight years, 
and could not cease wondering at the relatively small quan- 
tity of forest through which we passed, reflecting that fifty 
years ago there was not a field in this wide tract. 

Early on the 13th, we continued our journey through even 
more cultivated and hilly country. About nine o'clock in the 
forenoon we descended from Richmond on the summit of the 
high hills which skirt the river everywhere and arrived at the 
important manufacturing town of Steubenville on the Ohio. 
We had already learned at Annapolis that we could not pro- 
ceed to Pittsburgh this day, as we had hoped, for the Pitts- 
burgh coach leaves very early in the morning. We therefore 
had to wait until the next morning, since we did not feel like 
going by steamer. There was no lack of entertainment and 
in the evening when the heat, and also a toothache with which 
I suffered, abated, we saw the town thoroughly. In the en- 
suing night I noticed for the first time again traces of a 
cough, without surmising, however, that within a week after 
my return it would again become so violent and tight as to 
threaten to deprive me of any benefit from my journey. This 
was unfortunately the case, although during the rest of the 
journey I felt perfectly well and cheerful. 

After proceeding two miles on this side on our way to 
Pittsburgh, we took the ferry across the Ohio which, in this 
morning hour, was covered with such a dense fog that it was 
impossible to see a ferry's length ahead. Then we traveled 
through the thin strip of the state of Virginia which stretches 
between the river and Pennsylvania, until we reached Cross 
Roads in Pennsylvania. Here we had an excellent breakfast 
and then proceeded very fast on good roads in a 
very comfortable coach, in spite of the continuous hills over 
which we traveled. Through a deep, long valley we finally 



276 Von Schweinitz Journey 1831 

arrived again about noon at the Ohio, and had before 
us a short distance, wrapped in clouds of smoke, the great, 
populous and remarkable city of Pittsburgh, the first in 
America in productive factories of all kinds — especially iron, 
glass, cloth, and cotton goods. It is wonderfully situated in 
the fork of the two great streams, the Allegheny and the Mo- 
nongahela, which from here on form the Ohio, with inde- 
scribably beautiful surroundings and with gigantic bridges 
over these two rivers. Instead of following the turnpike up 
the Monongahela to the bridge, the coach drove directly on 
the immense steam- ferry which, in incredibly short time, land- 
ed us in the city just where the rivers meet, and so we ar- 
rived at the inn, very near the remnants of the fort [built] 
there against the Indians, formerly so important but long since 
abandoned. 

It is difficult to drive through the streets because every- 
where wrecking and new construction is going on, which here 
in Pittsburgh far exceeded anything seen before. The in- 
describable activity and the effects of the spirit of unlimited 
enterprise, astonishing everywhere in America, but especially 
so in the west, acquire in this wealthy city an especial character, 
because here, more than anywhere else, they bear the marks 
of solidity. On the neck of land on which Pittsburgh proper 
stands, cut off at the back by Grant's Hill, there is scarcely 
a spot that is not covered with houses. And since the great 
Pennsylvania Canal has been brought down into the Monon- 
gahela River by a cut clear through Grant's Hill and then by 
locks, this high hill itself has been entirely covered with 
houses, for the cut has been converted into a tunnel or under- 
ground canal by a vaulted cover and by filling in. The canal 
comes down on the other side of the Allegheny River into 
the wonderfully beautiful, new town of Allegheny which has 
arisen at the place where it meets the river and which is in- 
cluded in the 26,000 population attributed to Pittsburgh. Quite 
against the interests of the state, and solely for the benefit of 
the Old Pittsburgh, the canal at reckless and unnecessary ex- 



Von Schweinitz Journey 1831 277 

pense is brought across the Allegheny River in an enormous 
acqueduct above the bridge, costing more than $1,000,000. 

After we learned that we could hope to get as far as 
Reading on our homeward journey advantageously on the 
so-called northern route in three and one-half days, and still 
expect some hours of sleep every day, we decided to take this 
new way on Sunday, the seventeenth. We then resolved to 
use one of the intervening days for an excursion to the most 
remarkable settlement of the famous Mr. Rapp in Economy, 
ten miles distant ; 38 and on the other, to see the sights of 
Pittsburgh more in detail. Accordingly, on the morning of 
the 15th, we started for Economy in a livery cab on a very 
interesting road, which kept descending close to the Ohio, and 
offered the most glorious views and scenery. We reached this 
very unique place about nine o'clock. The immense fields 
and meadows in the finest state of cultivation and covered 
with whole armies of Economists ploughing, mowing, and hay- 
making together arouse astonishment which becomes even 
greater when one reaches the pleasant town laid out in squares 
and containing about 150 two-story, half brick and half frame- 
work, whitewashed private houses, exactly alike ; besides sev- 
eral very large factories and other public buildings, a beauti- 
ful church, and the houses which serve for Mr. Rapp's own 
residence. One peculiarity of the private houses is conspic- 
uous ; namely, that no doors open into the street, but the en- 
trance is always on the side through the yard. The dress of 
the people is plain, but suitable. Their whole appearance, es- 
pecially that of the women who were hay-making together, 
irresistibly called up recollections of my earliest childhood 



38 This is the settlement developed by George Rapp and his fol- 
lowers, as described later, after they sold New Harmony, on the Wa- 
bash in the present Posey County, to Robert Owen, and left Indiana 
in 1824. For the Rappites at Harmony and for the development of 
New Harmony, see Lockwood, George B., The New Harmony Move- 
ment (New York, 1905). On the Rappites at Economy, see Bouswan, 
Joseph, History of Beaver County, Pennsylvania, vol. II, pp. 1004-35 
(1904), and Williams, Aaron, Harmony Society at Economy, Pennsyl- 
vania (Pittsburgh, 1866). 



278 Von Schweinitz Journey 1831 

when I was accustomed to see something quite similar at 
Bethlehem and especially at Gnadenthal. All wear broad 
brimmed, but quite good looking straw hats. If one considers 
that only seven years ago Rapp commenced here anew, after 
selling a very similar establishment on the Wabash, New Har- 
mony, on account of the unheal thiness of the region, just as 
he had already previously sold Old Harmony in this present 
vicinity because his people were becoming alienated from him 
there, one must marvel at the success of the joint efforts which 
are most prudently directed from one center. The more than 
one thousand acres of fields in a perfect state of cultivation, 
which were still forests seven years ago, and the numerous 
buildings of every kind give no small idea of it. 

As I had with me several recommendations to old Mr. 
Rapp himself, and spoke of this right away in the well-ap- 
pointed and spacious inn, they were taken from me and car- 
ried to his house while we were breakfasting. Everybody 
speaks German and an external similarity to a German com- 
munity is indeed apparent, especially at the inn and in the 
conduct of the persons employed there. It seems that the 
good people are forming families now, for although only few 
children and very few young people were seen in proportion 
to the whole number of over eight hundred inhabitants, they 
were not entirely lacking. Not without a secret smile I noticed 
that the information we received on such matters from the 
landlord and waiter bore distinctly the traces of a familiar 
sort of reticence, talkative and inquisitive as they were in all 
other matters with us, as Germans. It was evidently no more 
agreeable to them than, for example, it is with us when 
strangers ask about the marriage-lot and such things. 

We had to wait a rather long time until we were intro- 
duced to the old gentleman because he was inspecting the 
fields. At length we were taken to his magnificently furnished, 
papered, and carpeted apartments and were most kindly re- 
ceived first by his adopted son, Frederick Rapp, and then 
by the aged man himself, very striking with his long silver 



Von Schweinitz Journey 1831 279 

hair. Our conversation was long and varied since the visit 
of members of the Moravian brotherhood seemed to interest 
him very much. Among other things, he dilated on Count 
Zinzendorf as a very great man who had also had the joy of 
seeing his extensive enterprises succeed so beautifully — that I 
was his great-grandson was of course a matter of interest to 
him also. At a remark of mine which he seemed to interpret 
as aiming at a comparison between our condition and that 
of his establishment, he undertook to explain in his stentorian 
voice that the difference consisted in the lack of obedience — 
which in America does not outlast the second generation — 
and obedience alone made the success of such enterprises 
possible. I should have liked exceedingly to get into a more 
detailed conversation with this obviously shrewd man, and 
should have asked him many a question which would prob- 
ably have given me more light on the whole matter. My knowl- 
edge of our own former circumstances, especially in external 
matters, would have enabled me to do so, but the time of 
our acquaintance was too short for it. Only one thing struck 
me: judging from all he let fall, there appeared to exist ab- 
solutely no real, religious foundation of the association, still 
less a Christian purpose, but all tended only to the bene esse. 
Yet Rapp is the preacher and the society rightly honors him 
as its father and supporter. He rules absolutely, however, and 
does not even seem to wield the staff of leniency on any fav- 
ored ones ; at least he speaks in a rough and commanding tone 
with everybody. 

He offered us several kinds of wines which he made here 
and on the Wabash, some of which were good but by no 
means comparable to the wine of our Bethlehem vineyards. 
He then took us completely through his large garden, stocked 
with the finest kinds of fruit and various sorts of plants and 
flowers, and at the same time given a half-way park effect, 
adorned here and there with pavilions and statues and the 
like in rather baroque style. He showed us a peculiar group 
of cottages on an artificial hill where music is given at eve- 



280 Von Schweinitz Journey 1831 

ning time, and the people lie down round about. He also had 
a dish of excellent cherries, morellos, picked for us, which 
we then ate in the house amid further conversation. There- 
upon he excused himself on account of business and regretted 
that he could not keep us for dinner. His son took us around 
further, especially to the museum. This is a large building 
with a gambrel roof which looks very much like the "Gemein- 
haus" at Herrnhut. It is under the supervision of Dr. Muel- 
ler who in former years made himself useful as a botanist and 
still speaks enthusiastically of that science and of music. He 
is director and also composer for them. He knew me by 
name and received me with great joy and love, showing us 
first the museum which is arranged in three large halls. It 
consists of stuffed animals, birds, and all possible objects 
of nature and art, accumulated without any taste, however, 
and still less scientific order; it contains nothing particularly 
remarkable. Many pictures and paintings also hang there. 
I was therefore the more delighted, as dinner approached, 
with Dr. Mueller's offer to show me when it was over the 
herbarium which is quite significant and principally collected 
along the Wabash, while Brother Frueauf was shown around 
in the church and elsewhere by the ordinary visitors' guide. 
The herbarium gave me great pleasure and yielded me many 
plants, as well as the acquaintance — bearing similar good fruit 
— with a Pittsburgh apothecary who also happened to be there 
and, introducing himself as a botanist, invited me to his house. 
We started on our way back, after four o'clock, quite happy 
over this visit. All day long the weather was clear, but so 
cold that one could comfortably wear an overcoat. The ride 
back through the romantic region was glorious. In the seven- 
mile Narrows, the river hills, mostly perpendicular rocks, 
came so close to the river that there is scarcely space for the 
road. At sunset nothing is more beautiful than the immediate 
environs of Pittsburgh. 

We spent Saturday in a pleasant manner, seeing the no- 
table sights of the city in the gracious company of Mr. Darling- 



Von Schweinitz Journey 1831 281 

ton, one of the gentlemen to whom I was recommended. The 
fearful rains of the past week had caused such floods in this 
region that the Pennsylvania Canal, constructed very badly 
here as everywhere and with the greatest waste of money, had 
suffered a very material damage. Among other things the 
main dam at the Kiskiminitas which furnishes it its water has 
been almost entirely washed away, so that it has gone dry at 
present. The navigation, which was already very considerable, 
will probably be hampered for the whole year. This, however, 
did not prevent us from thoroughly examining the tunnel and 
acqueduct on the canal, as well as a very interesting and ex- 
tensive iron works where, in a so-called rolling mill, pig-iron 
is drawn into bars with admirable rapidity. 

Early on the 17th, we left Pittsburgh in clear weather on 
the so-called northern route, which does not branch off from 
the southern turnpike, however, till Wilkinsburg. We traveled 
in a comfortable coach which fortunately was not overcrowded 
with passengers on the whole journey, for this is especially an- 
noying in hot weather, as we had occasion to observe for ex- 
ample at the breakfast place where we arrived at the same 
time as the passengers on the Philadelphia coach. They were 
fourteen in number, and no wonder that several appeared to 
be quite exhausted. Just where the two roads part, in the en- 
virons of Turtle Creek which consist of high steep defiles, lies 
the battlefield, noteworthy in American history, where the 
British General Braddock was vanquished in 1775 by the In- 
dians and French, and the remnants of his army were saved 
by Washington. Later on we found, to be sure, a good road 
and excellent views, but an almost uninterrupted, steep moun- 
tain ascent and descent, until we crossed the Loyalhannah, 
quite an important river, and approached the town of Blairs- 
ville, which has grown up like a mushroom on the canal, on 
the still larger Conemaugh River. Here there appeared fear- 
ful traces of the devastation wrought everywhere by the 
waters. Among other things, a high mill-dam over which the 
turnpike passes was half washed away, so that we had to 



282 Von Schweinitz Journey 1831 

take a long roundabout way before we got on the pike again. 
Blairsville, where we took dinner, is one of those quick births 
— perhaps also a miscarriage — of the spirit of speculation and 
enterprise, which probably can be found only in this country. 
On a spot where only four years ago there stood no buildings 
at all, several hundred elegant brick houses, some very large, 
now form an apparently fine town which has grown up as 
if by a stroke of magic. Where the enterprise is based upon 
an erroneous calculation, as it seems to be in this case, just 
as quick a decay must be expected, traces of which are not 
yet visible, to be sure, but which are said to have already com- 
menced. From here on we were always near the large West- 
ern Pennsylvania Canal which, however, is not completed 
much farther than here. A railroad, upon which work is just 
commencing, connects the western canal at Blair's Gap in the 
Allegheny Mountains with the eastern canal down the Juniata 
and Susquehannah. The freight charges from Philadelphia to 
Pittsburgh will indeed be much reduced by this line of com- 
munication. Even now it amounts only to $1.50 per hundred- 
weight, although long stretches of the canal cannot yet be 
used for navigation. Earlier than I had expected, we arrived 
at our night quarters, the pretty little town of Armagh, and 
could still enjoy four to five hours of rest before resuming 
our journey on the 18th. 

We now gradually approached the mountains proper, al- 
though there was nowhere a long, much less a steep mountain. 
On the contrary our road passed frequently through beautiful 
valleys grown with spruce forests. The overcast sky too soon 
changed into rain, in the midst of which we had the pleasure 
of meeting an old acquaintance from Bethlehem, Mr. Welsh. 
He is at present chief engineer of the canal in this region — 
as he had been with our canal — and was on his way to ex- 
amine the damage the enterprise had suffered. Another Beth- 
lehem acquaintance, Mr. Roberts, a young engineer, kept us 
very pleasant company in the coach from Ebensburg on, which 
is the county seat of Cambria County. As it was raining 



Von Schweinitz Journey 1831 283 

hard, this gave us [our only] opportunity to obtain very sat- 
isfactory information on the location of the railroad which 
we passed and on the whole situation. 

Through the darkest and finest spruce forests, we reached 
almost unnoticeably the crest of the Allegheny Mountains in 
Blair's Gap. Now one descends uninterruptedly for several 
miles along the little mountain stream which, at the little towns 
of Hollidaysburg and Franktown, forms the Juniata. From 
here on the Eastern Pennsylvania Canal, for the most part 
already completed, runs a short distance from the road, which 
descends continuously in the indescribably romantic valley of 
the Juniata to the Susquehannah above Harrisburg. Only 
here and there, where the river hills come too close to the 
bank, did the road again cross the mountains, so that it can 
truthfully be said that on this route the otherwise wearisome 
passage over the many successive ridges of the Allegheny 
Mountains is hardly noticed. Only the fact that it is still nec- 
essary several times to ford the Juniata, which gradually 
grows into a large river, and that there may be long delays 
at a sudden rise of the water, explains that the numerous 
freight conveyances prefer to go to Pittsburgh by way of 
Bedford. Almost everywhere, however, the construction of 
bridges is in progress. 

Soon after sunset, we came to the important town of 
Huntington and after supper had an opportunity to sleep un- 
til one o'clock, which rested me completely. At this early 
hour, on the 19th, we commenced our further journey to 
Harrisburg, by way of Waynesburg, Lewiston, Mifflin, and 
Thompsontown, a distance of almost one hundred miles. It 
was due to the dark, early hours that we noticed little of 
the awe-inspiring precipices along which the road ran. When 
it became light and the weather proved fine we enjoyed with- 
out interruption splendid (at times, exquisite) views in the 
charming Juniata Valley, through which we drove very fast, 
for with few exceptions, the road was very fine. At the 
mouth of the Juniata, in the gigantic Susquehannah River, 



284 Von Schweinitz Journey 1831 

there is forming a large and extraordinarily fertile island. 
We finally crossed this Susquehanna River on a fearfully 
long bridge, where Clark's Ferry formerly ran. We went 
at a great speed along its most remarkable banks for fourteen 
miles to the capital of Pennsylvania, all the while admiring 
the group of islands and rock reefs which give such a pecu- 
liar and remarkable appearance to this river, at places a mile 
and a half wide. A river of such magnitude, which is no- 
where really navigable, not even at its mouth, is perhaps not 
to be found anywhere else. Here, if anywhere, a canal is a 
commercial necessity. The Pennsylvania Canal along which 
one descends appears to be really well made in this region. 
It was probably about eight o'clock when we arrived at Har- 
risburg. Consequently we could rest only a couple of hours 
as we had to continue our journey on the 20th at one o'clock 
in the morning. 

The road was excellent from now on. We had breakfast 
at Lebanon, after a ride of about six hours on an empty 
stomach — a method of traveling which we did not find at 
all uncomfortable. After proceeding quickly through the fer- 
tile fields of Lebanon and Berks County, we arrived at Read- 
ing as early as eleven o'clock in the forenoon and spent the 
remainder of the day quite pleasantly there. From a news- 
paper which we got here we learned with the utmost sorrow 
of the decease of our worthy old Brother Jacob van Vleck 
whom I had left without much hope of again finding him 
here below. 

Full of longing for our beloved home and our dear ones, 
we boarded the coach for Bethlehem early on the 21st, for 
the last time, in fine clear weather. Breakfast was taken at 
Kultstown, and to our impatient disappointment we stopped 
unusually long for dinner at Allenstown. Nevertheless this 
gave us an opportunity to call on John Rice there and to 
assure ourselves of the wellbeing of our people from whom 
we had not heard directly since June 1st. At about three 
o'clock we arrived safely at our dear Bethlehem, full of thanks 



Von Schweinitz Journey 1831 285 

and praise, and were welcomed with joy by everybody. We 
ourselves were filled with delight at meeting all our dear ones 
again. I hopefully trust that the Lord will not let the benefi- 
cent results of my journey which have been lessened by the 
new attack of my cough wholly vanish. 

We have traveled twenty-one hundred miles (English; 
four hundred and fifty German miles) on this journey.